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Internal Medicine Nephrology


Primary care management of CKD (Link opens in a new window)

Nephrology Independent Medical Education

An independent educational program featuring simulated patient consultations. Make knowledge-based decisions on diagnosis and management of CKD with and without co-morbidities, and learn from experts Kevin Fernando and David Wheeler.

Supported by:
  • AstraZeneca

TKIs in metastatic RCC: is discontinuation feasible?

Open Access Kidney Cancer Review

Several retrospective and prospective studies have evaluated the outcomes of planned discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma, and the strategy appears to be viable.

CV effects of a low-sodium, high-potassium diet

Open Access Hypertension Review

Aggressive lifestyle modifications alongside antihypertensive therapy is an effective treatment strategy for controlling hypertension. But what effect does a low-sodium, high-potassium diet have on broader CV events? 

Current Reviews

Evaluation and Management of Hyponatremia in Heart Failure

Hyponatremia, defined as a serum sodium (Na + ) concentration < 135 mmol/L, is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients, affecting up to one-third of patients with heart failure (HF), being more frequent in advanced disease [ 1 …–

Cost-Effectiveness of Routine Monitoring of Long-Term Conditions in Primary Care: Informing Decision Modelling with a Systematic Review in Hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

Open Access Chronic Kidney Disease Systematic Review

Long-term conditions (LTCs) such as high blood pressure (hypertension), type-2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major public health problems. About 26 million people in England suffer from at least one LTC [ 1 ]; about 8.3 …

Intraoperative Colloid Use on Post-operative Renal Function

Open Access Acute Kidney Injury Renal Function (H Liu, Section Editor)

Post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a relatively common perioperative complication in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, which has been shown to worsen both short- and long-term outcomes such as progression to chronic kidney …

Impact of Immunosenescence in Older Kidney Transplant Recipients: Associated Clinical Outcomes and Possible Risk Stratification for Immunosuppression Reduction

The number of older individuals receiving a kidney transplant as replacement therapy has significantly increased in the past decades and this increase is expected to continue. Older patients have a lower rate of acute rejection but an increased …

Case Studies

Refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism presenting with retro-orbital brown tumor

Open Access Hyperparathyroidism Case Study

A case of treatment-resistant hyperparathyroidism with severe complications in a long-term kidney dialysis patient, who presented with an atypically located adenoma that required comprehensive surgical intervention.

Hypertension, proteinuria, and hypercalciuria in a previously healthy 3-year-old

Open Access Hypertension Case Study

A panel of experts examine the differential diagnosis for secondary hypertension in a young child, and the eventual diagnosis and management of generalized arterial calcification in infants.

Type 1 diabetes and chronic kidney disease – monitoring glucose levels during pregnancy

This case indicates that capillary blood glucose monitoring should be used alongside intermittently scanned CGM when pregnancy is complicated by type 1 diabetes and CKD.

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eLearning | Infographic (Link opens in a new window)

An independent educational program featuring simulated patient consultations. Make knowledge-based decisions on diagnosis and management of CKD with and without co-morbidities, and learn from experts Kevin Fernando and David Wheeler.

Supported by:
  • AstraZeneca
Developed by: Springer Healthcare IME

Further Reading

Evaluation of TRIM63 RNA in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) as a potential biomarker for alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS)

Open Access Sarcoma Original Paper

Alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare soft tissue tumor with a broad morphologic differential diagnosis. While histology and immunohistochemistry can be suggestive, diagnosis often requires exclusion of other entities followed by …

Circulating metabolomic markers linking diabetic kidney disease and incident cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: analyses from the Hong Kong Diabetes Biobank

Open Access Albuminuria Original Research

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) develops in approximately 40% of people with type 2 diabetes [ 1 ] and is associated with increased risk of CVD and mortality [ 2 ]. Diabetes is associated with two- to fourfold increased risk of CVD [ 3 ], whereas …

Initial lactate levels linked to oliguria in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia

Open Access Perinatal Asphyxia Original Article

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with longer hospital stays and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill adult, pediatric, and neonatal populations [ 1 , 2 ]. In neonates, urine output (UOP) criteria have been utilized as one of …

Pazopanib-induced enteritis in a patient with renal cell carcinoma

Open Access Pazopanib Case Report

A 69-year-old woman presented to our department with the chief complaint of diarrhea. She had undergone left nephrectomy for renal cancer 14 years earlier. Three years earlier, metastasis was detected in the left retroperitoneal cavity, and …