Skip to main content
Top

10-02-2024 | Chronic Myeloid Leukemia | REVIEW Free for a limited time

BCR/ABL-Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children: Current Treatment Approach

Authors: Jenna M. Menger, Ryan S. Sathianathen, Kathleen M. Sakamoto, Nobuko Hijiya

Published in: Current Oncology Reports

Login to get access

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to summarize the most updated treatment recommendations for pediatric CML, and to discuss current areas of investigation.

Recent Findings

There is new phase 1 data to support the safety of the non-ATP competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) asciminib in the pediatric cohort. Ongoing studies are investigating the role of treatment-free remission in children.

Summary

Chronic phase CML in children is managed with lifelong TKI therapy; however, evidence of deeper remissions sustained with second-generation TKIs may permit shorter treatment courses. Use of more specific TKIs may mitigate some of the side effects specific to the pediatric cohort. Children with advanced phase CML should achieve a complete hematologic remission with use of a second-generation TKI prior to transplant to achieve the best outcome.
Literature
1.
go back to reference SEER*Explorer: An interactive website for SEER cancer statistics [Internet]. Surveillance Research Program, National Cancer Institute; 2023. [updated: 2023 Nov 16; cited 2024 Feb 9]. Available from: https://seer.cancer.gov/statistics-network/explorer/. Data source(s): SEER Incidence Data, November 2022 Submission (1975-2020), SEER 22 registries. SEER*Explorer: An interactive website for SEER cancer statistics [Internet]. Surveillance Research Program, National Cancer Institute; 2023. [updated: 2023 Nov 16; cited 2024 Feb 9]. Available from: https://​seer.​cancer.​gov/​statistics-network/​explorer/​. Data source(s): SEER Incidence Data, November 2022 Submission (1975-2020), SEER 22 registries.
2.
go back to reference Athale U, et al. Management of chronic myeloid leukemia in children and adolescents: recommendations from the Children’s Oncology Group CML Working Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2019;66(9):e27827.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Athale U, et al. Management of chronic myeloid leukemia in children and adolescents: recommendations from the Children’s Oncology Group CML Working Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2019;66(9):e27827.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
4.
go back to reference Haznedaroğlu İC, Kuzu I, İlhan O. WHO 2016 Definition of chronic myeloid leukemia and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Turk J Haematol. 2020;37(1):42–7.PubMedPubMedCentral Haznedaroğlu İC, Kuzu I, İlhan O. WHO 2016 Definition of chronic myeloid leukemia and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Turk J Haematol. 2020;37(1):42–7.PubMedPubMedCentral
5.
6.
go back to reference Sembill S, et al. Management of children and adolescents with chronic myeloid leukemia in blast phase: international pediatric CML expert panel recommendations. Leukemia. 2023;37:505–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Sembill S, et al. Management of children and adolescents with chronic myeloid leukemia in blast phase: international pediatric CML expert panel recommendations. Leukemia. 2023;37:505–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
7.
go back to reference Millot F, et al. Prognostic discrimination based on the EUTOS long-term survival score within the International Registry for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in children and adolescents. Haematologica. 2017;102(10):1704–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Millot F, et al. Prognostic discrimination based on the EUTOS long-term survival score within the International Registry for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in children and adolescents. Haematologica. 2017;102(10):1704–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
8.
go back to reference Hijiya N, Suttorp M. How I treat chronic myeloid leukemia in children and adolescents. Blood. 2019;133(22):2374–84.PubMedCrossRef Hijiya N, Suttorp M. How I treat chronic myeloid leukemia in children and adolescents. Blood. 2019;133(22):2374–84.PubMedCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Cortes JE, et al. Final 5-year study results of DASISION: the dasatinib versus imatinib study in treatment-naïve chronic myeloid leukemia patients trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(20):2333–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Cortes JE, et al. Final 5-year study results of DASISION: the dasatinib versus imatinib study in treatment-naïve chronic myeloid leukemia patients trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(20):2333–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
10.
go back to reference Giles FJ, et al. Rates of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase treated with imatinib, nilotinib, or non-tyrosine kinase therapy: a retrospective cohort analysis. Leukemia. 2013;27(6):1310–5.PubMedCrossRef Giles FJ, et al. Rates of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase treated with imatinib, nilotinib, or non-tyrosine kinase therapy: a retrospective cohort analysis. Leukemia. 2013;27(6):1310–5.PubMedCrossRef
11.
go back to reference Douxfils J, et al. Association between BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors for chronic myeloid leukemia and cardiovascular events, major molecular response, and overall survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol. 2016;2(5):625–32.PubMedCrossRef Douxfils J, et al. Association between BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors for chronic myeloid leukemia and cardiovascular events, major molecular response, and overall survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol. 2016;2(5):625–32.PubMedCrossRef
12.
go back to reference Larson RA, et al. Nilotinib vs imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: ENESTnd 3-year follow-up [published correction appears in Leukemia. 2012;26:2302]. Leukemia. 2012;26(10):2197–203.PubMedCrossRef Larson RA, et al. Nilotinib vs imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: ENESTnd 3-year follow-up [published correction appears in Leukemia. 2012;26:2302]. Leukemia. 2012;26(10):2197–203.PubMedCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Gore L, et al. Dasatinib in pediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results from a phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(13):1330–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Gore L, et al. Dasatinib in pediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results from a phase II trial. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(13):1330–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
14.
go back to reference Hijiya N, et al. Phase 2 study of nilotinib in pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2019;134(23):2036–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hijiya N, et al. Phase 2 study of nilotinib in pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2019;134(23):2036–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
15.
go back to reference Hijiya N, et al. Pharmacokinetics of nilotinib in pediatric patients with philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2020;26(4):812–20.PubMedCrossRef Hijiya N, et al. Pharmacokinetics of nilotinib in pediatric patients with philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2020;26(4):812–20.PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference •• Brivio E, et al. Bosutinib in resistant and intolerant pediatric patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia: results from the Phase I Part of Study ITCC054/COG AAML1921. J ClinOncol. 2023;JCO2300897. The results from the phase 1 component of a trial of bosutinib in children with resistant or intolerant Ph+ CML demonstrated a tolerable toxicity profile in the three doses evaluated as well as efficacy comparable to other second generation TKIs in this population. •• Brivio E, et al. Bosutinib in resistant and intolerant pediatric patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia: results from the Phase I Part of Study ITCC054/COG AAML1921. J ClinOncol. 2023;JCO2300897. The results from the phase 1 component of a trial of bosutinib in children with resistant or intolerant Ph+ CML demonstrated a tolerable toxicity profile in the three doses evaluated as well as efficacy comparable to other second generation TKIs in this population.
17.
go back to reference Cortes JE, et al. Bosutinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia: results from the Randomized BFORE Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(3):231–7.PubMedCrossRef Cortes JE, et al. Bosutinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia: results from the Randomized BFORE Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(3):231–7.PubMedCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Tauer JT, et al. Impact of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib in young rats on the vertebral body. Blood. 2013;122(21):1472.CrossRef Tauer JT, et al. Impact of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib in young rats on the vertebral body. Blood. 2013;122(21):1472.CrossRef
19.
go back to reference Hochhaus A, et al. Long-term benefits and risks of frontline nilotinib vs imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: 5-year update of the randomized ENESTnd trial. Leukemia. 2016;30(5):1044–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hochhaus A, et al. Long-term benefits and risks of frontline nilotinib vs imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: 5-year update of the randomized ENESTnd trial. Leukemia. 2016;30(5):1044–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Cortes JE, et al. Final 5-year study results of DASISION: the Dasatinib Versus Imatinib Study in treatment-naïve chronic myeloid leukemia patients Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(20):2333–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Cortes JE, et al. Final 5-year study results of DASISION: the Dasatinib Versus Imatinib Study in treatment-naïve chronic myeloid leukemia patients Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(20):2333–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
21.
go back to reference Deininger MW, et al. Chronic myeloid leukemia, Version 2.2021, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2020;18(10):1385–415.PubMedCrossRef Deininger MW, et al. Chronic myeloid leukemia, Version 2.2021, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2020;18(10):1385–415.PubMedCrossRef
23.
go back to reference Millot F, et al. Imatinib is effective in children with previously untreated chronic myelogenous leukemia in early chronic phase: results of the French national phase IV trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(20):2827–32.PubMedCrossRef Millot F, et al. Imatinib is effective in children with previously untreated chronic myelogenous leukemia in early chronic phase: results of the French national phase IV trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(20):2827–32.PubMedCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Inzoli E, et al. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor discontinuation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: eligibility criteria and predictors of success. Am J Hematol. 2022;97(8):1075–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Inzoli E, et al. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor discontinuation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: eligibility criteria and predictors of success. Am J Hematol. 2022;97(8):1075–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
25.
go back to reference Kurosawa H, et al. Sequential use of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors following imatinib therapy in pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia: a report from the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018;65(12):e27368.PubMedCrossRef Kurosawa H, et al. Sequential use of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors following imatinib therapy in pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia: a report from the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018;65(12):e27368.PubMedCrossRef
26.
go back to reference Soverini S, et al. BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation analysis in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of European LeukemiaNet. Blood. 2011;118(5):1208–15.PubMedCrossRef Soverini S, et al. BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation analysis in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of European LeukemiaNet. Blood. 2011;118(5):1208–15.PubMedCrossRef
27.
go back to reference •• Hughes TP, et al. Asciminib in chronic myeloid leukemia after ABL kinase inhibitor failure. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(24):2315–2326. A phase 1 study of asciminib in adults with refractory CML or intolerance to other TKI therapy demonstrated tolerability as well as durable and sustained responses in patients with both chronic and accelerated phase CML and those with T315I mutations. •• Hughes TP, et al. Asciminib in chronic myeloid leukemia after ABL kinase inhibitor failure. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(24):2315–2326. A phase 1 study of asciminib in adults with refractory CML or intolerance to other TKI therapy demonstrated tolerability as well as durable and sustained responses in patients with both chronic and accelerated phase CML and those with T315I mutations.
28.
go back to reference Réa D, et al. A phase 3, open-label, randomized study of asciminib, a STAMP inhibitor, vs bosutinib in CML after 2 or more prior TKIs. Blood. 2021;138(21):2031–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Réa D, et al. A phase 3, open-label, randomized study of asciminib, a STAMP inhibitor, vs bosutinib in CML after 2 or more prior TKIs. Blood. 2021;138(21):2031–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
29.
go back to reference Cortes JE, et al. Ponatinib efficacy and safety in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia: final 5-year results of the phase 2 PACE trial. Blood. 2018;132(4):393–404.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Cortes JE, et al. Ponatinib efficacy and safety in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia: final 5-year results of the phase 2 PACE trial. Blood. 2018;132(4):393–404.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
30.
go back to reference Rossoff J, et al. Experience with ponatinib in paediatric patients with leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2020;189(2):363–8.PubMedCrossRef Rossoff J, et al. Experience with ponatinib in paediatric patients with leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2020;189(2):363–8.PubMedCrossRef
31.
go back to reference Jiang Q, et al. Olverembatinib (HQP1351), a well-tolerated and effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor for patients with T315I-mutated chronic myeloid leukemia: results of an open-label, multicenter phase 1/2 trial. J Hematol Oncol. 2022;15(1):113.MathSciNetPubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Jiang Q, et al. Olverembatinib (HQP1351), a well-tolerated and effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor for patients with T315I-mutated chronic myeloid leukemia: results of an open-label, multicenter phase 1/2 trial. J Hematol Oncol. 2022;15(1):113.MathSciNetPubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
32.
go back to reference Li X, et al. Olverembatinib treatment in pediatric patients with relapsed philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2023;S2152–2650(23):00140–4. Li X, et al. Olverembatinib treatment in pediatric patients with relapsed philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2023;S2152–2650(23):00140–4.
33.
go back to reference Jorge E, et al. Efficacy and safety of vodobatinib in patients (pts) with chronic phase philadelphia positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML): a sub group analysis by lines of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) Therapy. Blood. 2022;140(Supplement 1):205–7.CrossRef Jorge E, et al. Efficacy and safety of vodobatinib in patients (pts) with chronic phase philadelphia positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML): a sub group analysis by lines of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) Therapy. Blood. 2022;140(Supplement 1):205–7.CrossRef
34.
go back to reference Turkina AG, et al. PF-114 in patients failing prior tyrosine kinase-inhibitor therapy including BCR::ABL1T315I. Blood. 2021;138(Supplement 1):1482.CrossRef Turkina AG, et al. PF-114 in patients failing prior tyrosine kinase-inhibitor therapy including BCR::ABL1T315I. Blood. 2021;138(Supplement 1):1482.CrossRef
36.
go back to reference Cortes JE, et al. Final analysis of the efficacy and safety of omacetaxine mepesuccinate in patients with chronic- or accelerated-phase chronic myeloid leukemia: Results with 24 months of follow-up. Cancer. 2015;121(10):1637–44.PubMedCrossRef Cortes JE, et al. Final analysis of the efficacy and safety of omacetaxine mepesuccinate in patients with chronic- or accelerated-phase chronic myeloid leukemia: Results with 24 months of follow-up. Cancer. 2015;121(10):1637–44.PubMedCrossRef
37.
go back to reference Alvandi F, et al. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval summary: omacetaxine mepesuccinate as treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. Oncologist. 2014;19(1):94–9.PubMedCrossRef Alvandi F, et al. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval summary: omacetaxine mepesuccinate as treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. Oncologist. 2014;19(1):94–9.PubMedCrossRef
39.
go back to reference Hehlmann R, et al. Assessment of imatinib as first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: 10-year survival results of the randomized CML study IV and impact of non-CML determinants. Leukemia. 2017;31(11):2398–406.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hehlmann R, et al. Assessment of imatinib as first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: 10-year survival results of the randomized CML study IV and impact of non-CML determinants. Leukemia. 2017;31(11):2398–406.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
40.
go back to reference Millot F, et al. Favourable outcome of de novo advanced phases of childhood chronic myeloid leukaemia. Eur J Cancer. 2019;115:17–23.PubMedCrossRef Millot F, et al. Favourable outcome of de novo advanced phases of childhood chronic myeloid leukaemia. Eur J Cancer. 2019;115:17–23.PubMedCrossRef
41.
go back to reference Porkka K, et al. Dasatinib crosses the blood-brain barrier and is an efficient therapy for central nervous system Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Blood. 2008;112:1005–12.PubMedCrossRef Porkka K, et al. Dasatinib crosses the blood-brain barrier and is an efficient therapy for central nervous system Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Blood. 2008;112:1005–12.PubMedCrossRef
42.
go back to reference Chiba A, et al. Chronic myelogenous leukemia presenting with central nervous system infiltration, successfully treated with central nervous system-directed chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol. 2018;108:640–6.PubMedCrossRef Chiba A, et al. Chronic myelogenous leukemia presenting with central nervous system infiltration, successfully treated with central nervous system-directed chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol. 2018;108:640–6.PubMedCrossRef
43.
go back to reference Sembill S, et al. Paediatric chronic myeloid leukaemia presenting in de novo or secondary blast phase - a comparison of clinical and genetic characteristics. Br J Haematol. 2021;193:613–8.PubMedCrossRef Sembill S, et al. Paediatric chronic myeloid leukaemia presenting in de novo or secondary blast phase - a comparison of clinical and genetic characteristics. Br J Haematol. 2021;193:613–8.PubMedCrossRef
44.
go back to reference Radujkovic A, et al. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a retrospective study by the EBMT chronic malignancies working party. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2019;25:2008–16.CrossRef Radujkovic A, et al. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a retrospective study by the EBMT chronic malignancies working party. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl. 2019;25:2008–16.CrossRef
46.
go back to reference Krumbholz M, et al. Genomic BCR-ABL1 breakpoints in pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia. Genes Chromosome Cancer. 2012;51(11):1045–53.CrossRef Krumbholz M, et al. Genomic BCR-ABL1 breakpoints in pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia. Genes Chromosome Cancer. 2012;51(11):1045–53.CrossRef
47.
go back to reference Branford S, et al. International CML Foundation Genomics Alliance. Laying the foundation for genomically-based risk assessment in chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 2019;33(8):1835–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Branford S, et al. International CML Foundation Genomics Alliance. Laying the foundation for genomically-based risk assessment in chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 2019;33(8):1835–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
48.
go back to reference Schönfeld L, et al. ASXL1 mutations predict inferior molecular response to nilotinib treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 2022;36(9):2242–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Schönfeld L, et al. ASXL1 mutations predict inferior molecular response to nilotinib treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 2022;36(9):2242–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
49.
go back to reference Meyran D, et al. Lymphoblastic predominance of blastic phase in children with chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with imatinib: a report from the I-CML-Ped Study. Eur J Cancer. 2020;137:224–34.PubMedCrossRef Meyran D, et al. Lymphoblastic predominance of blastic phase in children with chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with imatinib: a report from the I-CML-Ped Study. Eur J Cancer. 2020;137:224–34.PubMedCrossRef
51.
go back to reference Hoffmann VS, et al. The EUTOS population-based registry: incidence and clinical characteristics of 2904 CML patients in 20 european countries. Leukemia. 2015;29(6):1336–43.PubMedCrossRef Hoffmann VS, et al. The EUTOS population-based registry: incidence and clinical characteristics of 2904 CML patients in 20 european countries. Leukemia. 2015;29(6):1336–43.PubMedCrossRef
52.
go back to reference Samis J, et al. Recognizing endocrinopathies associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in children with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016;63(8):1332–8.PubMedCrossRef Samis J, et al. Recognizing endocrinopathies associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in children with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016;63(8):1332–8.PubMedCrossRef
53.
go back to reference Narayanan KR, et al. Growth failure in children with chronic myeloid leukemia receiving imatinib is due to disruption of GH/IGF-1 axis. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(7):1148–53.PubMedCrossRef Narayanan KR, et al. Growth failure in children with chronic myeloid leukemia receiving imatinib is due to disruption of GH/IGF-1 axis. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(7):1148–53.PubMedCrossRef
54.
go back to reference • Walia R, et al. Acquired neuro-secretory defect in growth hormone secretion due to Imatinib mesylate and the efficacy of growth hormone therapy in children with chronic myeloid leukemia. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2020;37(2):99–108. Four children with CP-CML in remission on imatinib therapy, who had evidence of growth impairment and low levels of IGH-1, were treated with growth hormone and had an improvement in their growth velocity. • Walia R, et al. Acquired neuro-secretory defect in growth hormone secretion due to Imatinib mesylate and the efficacy of growth hormone therapy in children with chronic myeloid leukemia. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2020;37(2):99–108. Four children with CP-CML in remission on imatinib therapy, who had evidence of growth impairment and low levels of IGH-1, were treated with growth hormone and had an improvement in their growth velocity.
55.
go back to reference Robertson HF, Buckton MJ, Apperley JF. Managing women of childbearing age with chronic myeloid leukemia: safety and treatment considerations. Expert Rev Hematol. 2023;16(5):325–32.PubMedCrossRef Robertson HF, Buckton MJ, Apperley JF. Managing women of childbearing age with chronic myeloid leukemia: safety and treatment considerations. Expert Rev Hematol. 2023;16(5):325–32.PubMedCrossRef
56.
go back to reference Ali R, et al. Imatinib use during pregnancy and breast feeding: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;280(2):169–75.PubMedCrossRef Ali R, et al. Imatinib use during pregnancy and breast feeding: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;280(2):169–75.PubMedCrossRef
57.
go back to reference Chelysheva E, et al. S881 Pregnancy outcome in female patients with chronic myeloid leukemia worldwide: analysis of 305 cases of the European leukaemia net registry. Hemasphere. 2019;3(S1):395–6.CrossRef Chelysheva E, et al. S881 Pregnancy outcome in female patients with chronic myeloid leukemia worldwide: analysis of 305 cases of the European leukaemia net registry. Hemasphere. 2019;3(S1):395–6.CrossRef
58.
go back to reference Yazdani Brojeni P, et al. A systematic review of the fetal safety of interferon alpha. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33(3):265–8.PubMedCrossRef Yazdani Brojeni P, et al. A systematic review of the fetal safety of interferon alpha. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33(3):265–8.PubMedCrossRef
Metadata
Title
BCR/ABL-Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children: Current Treatment Approach
Authors
Jenna M. Menger
Ryan S. Sathianathen
Kathleen M. Sakamoto
Nobuko Hijiya
Publication date
10-02-2024
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Current Oncology Reports
Print ISSN: 1523-3790
Electronic ISSN: 1534-6269
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-024-01502-z