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Case studies

Preoperative immunotherapy promising in mesothelioma

Open Access Pleural Mesothelioma Case Study

A patient with advanced pleural mesothelioma experienced dramatic tumor shrinkage after neoadjuvant checkpoint inhibitor therapy, and was able to successfully undergo surgery.

A challenging case of CAP

Open Access Community-Acquired Pneumonia Case Study

A woman presenting with community-acquired pneumonia developed several serious complications, likely due to co-existence of poorly controlled diabetes and a late diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

Misdiagnosis of MMNST of the cervical spinal cord

Open Access Spinal Tumor Case Study

Malignant melanotic nerve sheath tumors are rare and highly aggressive. In this case MMNST was misdiagnosed as a benign vascular malformation, then recurred 7 months after resection.

Strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary

Salpingo-oophorectomy was performed after 15 years’ surveillance of an ovarian dermoid cyst in a female with type 2 diabetes. The removed ovary contained a mature cystic teratoma and a discrete solid nodule.

Neurological complications of CAR T-cell therapy

A 38-year-old with B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia developed a brain abnormality, detected by CT scan on day 16 following CAR T-cell infusion. How would you assess and treat her?

Misdiagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma

Open Access Sarcoma Case Study

A pulmonary arterial sarcoma was mistaken as pulmonary vasculitis due to similarities between the diagnoses. This case highlights some cardinal features of the malignancy that are not seen in vasculitis.

Neonatal meningitis: new and old lessons

Open Access Meningitis in Childhood Case Study

A premature infant presented with extensive CNS injury from recurrent E. coli infection, requiring non-traditional methods to identify and clear the infection.

Oncolytic virus therapy promising in mucosal melanoma

Open Access Mucosal Melanoma Case Study

Intralesional treatment with the oncolytic virus talimogene laherparepvec led to a complete local response in a patient with oral mucosal melanoma who was ineligible for other anticancer therapies.

A challenging diagnosis: melanoma or clear cell sarcoma?

Open Access Clear-Cell Sarcoma Case Study

A case of clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma underscores the need for an integrated diagnostic approach involving clinical, histopathological, and radiological evaluations.

Blastocystis hominis infection presenting as immune thrombocytopenia

Open Access Thrombocytopenia in Children Case Study

Screening for potential predisposing factors is essential in patients with ITP who have poor response to first-line treatment. This unusual case was related to parasitic infection.

Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid

Open Access Thyroid Cancer Case Study

Imaging, cytologic, histologic, and molecular investigations all contributed to the diagnosis of a rare case of HTT in a woman with an incidentally discovered mass in the left lobe of her thyroid gland.

A challenging diagnosis of lung cancer

Open Access Lung Cancer Case Study

Although uncommon, lung cancer in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis can be difficult to diagnose due to similarities in imaging findings.

Arrhythmia secondary to abiraterone treatment

A man receiving abiraterone for prostate cancer developed severe hypokalemia, which led to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and cardiac arrest. It is important to consider iatrogenic causes in cases of arrhythmia.

Insulinoma misidentified as schizophrenia

Insulinoma Case Study

Intermittently scanning CGM detected hypoglycemia in a woman previously diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with antipsychotic medication. Insulinoma was diagnosed and resected, resolving her neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Bronchopleural fistula after neoadjuvant immunochemotherapy

Bronchopleural fistula is a rare but potentially fatal complication that can occur after surgery in patients receiving neoadjuvant immunochemotherapy for stage III NSCLC.

Vocal cord paralysis caused by metastasized endometrial cancer

Open Access Endometrial Cancer Case Study

The first case of vocal cord paralysis due to a mediastinal metastasis developing 16 years after the patient's endometrial cancer was treated by hysterectomy, external beam radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.

Delayed diagnosis of APAP in patient with dermatomyositis

Open Access Respiratory Medicine Case Study

Differentiating autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (APAP) from a flare-up of interstitial pneumonia associated with dermatomyositis is challenging. This case highlights the need for early APAP scrutiny.

Unusual presentation and delayed diagnosis of cardiac angiosarcoma

Open Access Hemangiosarcoma Case Study

Primary cardiac angiosarcomas are very aggressive tumors that often present after metastatic spread. In this case, initial presentation with chest pain rapidly progressed to multiple solid tumors. 

A rare case of adult primary brain rhabdomyosarcoma

Open Access Rhabdomyosarcoma Case Study

Primary brain rhabdomyosarcoma primarily occurs in children, but this case in a 26-year-old sheds light on managing the condition in adults.

Coronary thrombectomy for a post-op MI after brain tumor resection

Open Access Myocardial Infarction Case Study

How should you react to an acute MI immediately after a craniotomy for tumor resection? Management of such patients requires carefully balancing the competing risks of myocardial ischemia and postoperative bleeding.