PB201 is an orally active, partial glucokinase activator targeting both pancreatic and hepatic glucokinase. As the second glucokinase activator studied beyond phase I, PB201 has demonstrated promising glycemic effects as well as favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aims to develop a population PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) model for PB201 using the pooled data from nine phase I/II clinical trials conducted in non-Chinese healthy volunteers and a T2DM population and to predict the PK/PD profile of PB201 in a Chinese T2DM population. We developed the PK/PD model using the non-linear mixed-effects modeling approach. All runs were performed using the first-order conditional estimation method with interaction. The pharmacokinetics of PB201 were well fitted by a one-compartment model with saturable absorption and linear elimination. The PD effects of PB201 on reducing the fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in the T2DM population were described by indirect response models as stimulating the elimination of fasting plasma glucose, where the production of glycosylated hemoglobin was assumed to be stimulated by fasting plasma glucose. Covariate analyses revealed enhanced absorption of PB201 by food and decreased systemic clearance with ketoconazole co-administration, while no significant covariate was identified for the pharmacodynamics. The population PK model established for non-Chinese populations was shown to be applicable to the Chinese T2DM population as verified by the PK data from the Chinese phase I study. The final population PK/PD model predicted persistent and dose-dependent reductions in fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in the Chinese T2DM population receiving 50/50 mg, 100/50 mg, and 100/100 mg PB201 twice daily for 24 weeks independent of co-administration of metformin. Overall, the proposed population PK/PD model quantitatively characterized the PK/PD properties of PB201 and the impact of covariates on its target populations, which allows the leveraging of extensive data in non-Chinese populations with the limited data in the Chinese T2DM population to successfully supported the waiver of the clinical phase II trial and facilitate the optimal dose regimen design of a pivotal phase III study of PB201 in China.