(1) Evaluate the associations between L1-pelvic angle (L1PA) and both sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and T1-pelvic angle (T1PA), and (2) assess the clinical impact of L1PA.
A single-institution retrospective cohort study was undertaken for patients undergoing adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery from 2013 to 2017. Ideal L1PA was defined as (0.5xPelvic Incidence)-21. Pearson correlation was performed to compare L1PA, SVA, and T1PA. Univariate/multivariate regression was performed to assess the effect of L1PA on mechanical complications, controlling for age, BMI, and postoperative pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch (PI/LL). Due to the overlapping nature of patients with pseudarthrosis and rod fracture, these patients were analyzed together.
A total of 145 patients were included. Mean preoperative L1PA, SVA, and T1PA were 15.5 ± 8.9°, 90.7 ± 66.8 mm, and 27.1 ± 13.0°, respectively. Mean postoperative L1PA, SVA, and T1PA were 15.0 ± 8.9°, 66.7 ± 52.8 mm, and 22.3 ± 11.1°, respectively. Thirty-six (24.8%) patients achieved ideal L1PA. Though the correlation was modest, preoperative L1PA was linearly correlated with preoperative SVA (r2 = 0.16, r = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22–0.60, p < 0.001) and T1PA (r2 = 0.41, r = 0.62, 95%CI = 0.46–0.76, p < 0.001). Postoperative L1PA was linearly correlated with postoperative SVA (r2 = 0.12, r = 0.37, 95%CI = 0.18–0.56, p < 0.001) and T1PA (r2 = 0.40, r = 0.62, 95%CI = 0.45–0.74, p < 0.001). Achieving ideal L1PA ± 5° was associated with a decreased risk of rod fracture/pseudarthrosis on univariate and multivariate regression (OR = 0.33, 95%CI = 0.12–0.86, p = 0.024). No association between achieving ideal L1PA and patient-reported outcomes was observed.
L1PA was modestly correlated with SVA and T1PA, and achieving ideal L1PA was associated with lower rates of rod fracture/pseudarthrosis. Future studies are warranted to better define the clinical implications of achieving a normal L1PA.
Level of evidence