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Open Access 23-03-2024 | Metabolic Disease and Nutrition | REVIEW

Alcohol Drinking Impacts on Adiposity and Steatotic Liver Disease: Concurrent Effects on Metabolic Pathways and Cardiovascular Risks

Authors: Diego Martínez-Urbistondo, Nuria Perez-Diaz-del-Campo, Manuel F. Landecho, J. Alfredo Martínez

Published in: Current Obesity Reports

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Abstract

Purpose of Review

This integrative search aimed to provide a scoping overview of the relationships between the benefits and harms of alcohol drinking with cardiovascular events as associated to body fat mass and fatty liver diseases, as well as offering critical insights for precision nutrition research and personalized medicine implementation concerning cardiovascular risk management associated to ethanol consumption.

Recent Findings

Frequent alcohol intake could contribute to a sustained rise in adiposity over time. Body fat distribution patterns (abdominal/gluteus-femoral) and intrahepatic accumulation of lipids have been linked to adverse cardiovascular clinical outcomes depending on ethanol intake. Therefore, there is a need to understand the complex interplay between alcohol consumption, adipose store distribution, metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), and cardiovascular events in adult individuals. The current narrative review deals with underconsidered and apparently conflicting benefits concerning the amount of alcohol intake, ranging from abstention to moderation, and highlights the requirements for additional robust methodological studies and trials to interpret undertrained and existing controversies.

Summary

The conclusion of this review emphasizes the need of newer multifaceted clinical approaches for precision medicine implementation, considering epidemiological strategies and pathophysiological mechanistic. Newer investigations and trials should be derived and performed particularly focusing both on alcohol’s objective consequences as putatively mediated by fat deposition, including associated roles in fatty liver disease as well as to differentiate the impact of different levels of alcohol consumption (absence or moderation) concerning cardiovascular risks and accompanying clinical manifestations. Indeed, the threshold for the safe consumption of alcoholic drinks remains to be fully elucidated.

Graphical Abstract

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Metadata
Title
Alcohol Drinking Impacts on Adiposity and Steatotic Liver Disease: Concurrent Effects on Metabolic Pathways and Cardiovascular Risks
Authors
Diego Martínez-Urbistondo
Nuria Perez-Diaz-del-Campo
Manuel F. Landecho
J. Alfredo Martínez
Publication date
23-03-2024
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Current Obesity Reports
Electronic ISSN: 2162-4968
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-024-00560-5