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Open Access 04-05-2024 | COVID-19 | Research

FURIN, IFNL4, and TLR2 gene polymorphisms in relation to COVID-19 severity: a case–control study in Egyptian patients

Authors: Gamalat A. Elgedawy, Naglaa S. Elabd, Radwa H. Salem, Samah M. Awad, Amany A. Amer, Mohammad M. Torayah, Amal A. El-Koa, Mai Abozeid, Belal A. Montaser, Hind S. Aboshabaan, Mervat Abdelkreem, Marwa L. Helal

Published in: Infection

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Abstract

Background and Aim

A wide range of clinical manifestations and outcomes, including liver injury, have been reported in COVID-19 patients. We investigated the association of three substantial gene polymorphisms (FURIN, IFNL4, and TLR2) with COVID-19 disease susceptibility and severity to help predict prognosis.

Methods

150 adult COVID-19-assured cases were categorized as follows: 78 patients with a non-severe presentation, 39 patients with severe disease, and 33 critically ill patients. In addition, 74 healthy controls were included. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were carried out, including complete and differential blood counts, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, ferritin, interleukin-6 (Il-6), and liver and kidney functions. FURIN (rs6226), IFNL4 (rs12979860), and TLR2 (rs3804099) genotyping allelic discrimination assays were conducted using real-time PCR.

Results

The FURIN, IFNL4, and TLR2 genotypes and their alleles differed significantly between COVID-19 patients and controls, as well as between patients with severe or critical illness and those with a non-severe presentation. According to a multivariable regression analysis, FURIN (C/T + T/T) and TLR2 (T/C + C/C) mutants were associated with COVID-19 susceptibility, with odds ratios of 3.293 and 2.839, respectively. FURIN C/C and IFNL4 T/T mutants were significantly linked to severe and critical illnesses. Multivariate regression analysis showed that FURIN (G/C + C/C) genotypes and IFNL4 T/T homozygosity were independent risk factors associated with increased mortality.

Conclusion

FURIN, IFNL4, and TLR2 gene variants are associated with the risk of COVID-19 occurrence as well as increased severity and poor outcomes in Egyptian patients.
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Metadata
Title
FURIN, IFNL4, and TLR2 gene polymorphisms in relation to COVID-19 severity: a case–control study in Egyptian patients
Authors
Gamalat A. Elgedawy
Naglaa S. Elabd
Radwa H. Salem
Samah M. Awad
Amany A. Amer
Mohammad M. Torayah
Amal A. El-Koa
Mai Abozeid
Belal A. Montaser
Hind S. Aboshabaan
Mervat Abdelkreem
Marwa L. Helal
Publication date
04-05-2024
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Keyword
COVID-19
Published in
Infection
Print ISSN: 0300-8126
Electronic ISSN: 1439-0973
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-024-02266-1
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