Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen is a relatively rare benign vascular lesion in both adult and pediatric age groups with unclear etiopathogenesis and variable clinical presentations. Many benign and also malignant splenic masses could mimic sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation, both clinically and radiologically. Herein, we report our experience with a case of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation in a 3-year-old girl.
A 3-year-old Iranian girl presented with abdominal pain, back pain, and constipation for 2 weeks. She was being followed up by a pediatrician due to her short stature and persistent anemia. Physical examination showed stable vital signs, short stature, pallor, and a puffy face. Laboratory evaluation showed normochromic normocytic anemia with a normal reticulocyte count, ferritin, and hemoglobin electrophoresis. Radiologic assessments revealed a hypoechoic lesion in the spleen with high vascularity, clinically suspected to be lymphoma. She was operated on, and after partial splenectomy, pathologic evaluation of the spleen showed a solitary, well-demarcated, and unencapsulated dark mass. Microscopic examination revealed micronodular appearance composed of irregular-shaped vascular spaces lined by plump endothelial cells and surrounded by concentric collagen fibers, features in keeping with sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation. The patient’s anemia was resolved after surgery, and no clinical or radiologic deficits were noted during the 10-month follow-up visits.
Although sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation is exceedingly rare in children, it should be considered a differential diagnosis in pediatric splenic neoplasms with concurrent hematologic manifestations, such as anemia.