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Open Access 01-12-2022 | Vaccination | Research

Testing and vaccination to reduce the impact of COVID-19 in nursing homes: an agent-based approach

Authors: José P. Gómez Vázquez, Yury E. García, Alec J. Schmidt, Beatriz Martínez-López, Miriam Nuño

Published in: BMC Infectious Diseases | Issue 1/2022

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Abstract

Background

Efforts to protect residents in nursing homes involve non-pharmaceutical interventions, testing, and vaccine. We sought to quantify the effect of testing and vaccine strategies on the attack rate, length of the epidemic, and hospitalization.

Methods

We developed an agent-based model to simulate the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among resident and staff agents in a nursing home. Interactions between 172 residents and 170 staff based on data from a nursing home in Los Angeles, CA. Scenarios were simulated assuming different levels of non-pharmaceutical interventions, testing frequencies, and vaccine efficacy to reduce transmission.

Results

Under the hypothetical scenario of widespread SARS-CoV-2 in the community, 3-day testing frequency minimized the attack rate and the time to eradicate an outbreak. Prioritization of vaccine among staff or staff and residents minimized the cumulative number of infections and hospitalization, particularly in the scenario of high probability of an introduction. Reducing the probability of a viral introduction eased the demand on testing and vaccination rate to decrease infections and hospitalizations.

Conclusions

Improving frequency of testing from 7-days to 3-days minimized the number of infections and hospitalizations, despite widespread community transmission. Vaccine prioritization of staff provides the best protection strategy when the risk of viral introduction is high.
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Metadata
Title
Testing and vaccination to reduce the impact of COVID-19 in nursing homes: an agent-based approach
Authors
José P. Gómez Vázquez
Yury E. García
Alec J. Schmidt
Beatriz Martínez-López
Miriam Nuño
Publication date
01-12-2022
Publisher
BioMed Central
Published in
BMC Infectious Diseases / Issue 1/2022
Electronic ISSN: 1471-2334
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-022-07385-4

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