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Published in: European Journal of Nutrition 2/2024

Open Access 20-11-2023 | Original Contribution

Types of fish consumption differ across socioeconomic strata and impact differently on plasma fish-based omega-3 fatty acids: a cross-sectional study

Authors: Yinjie Zhu, Jochen O. Mierau, Ineke J. Riphagen, M. Rebecca Heiner-Fokkema, Louise H. Dekker, Gerjan J. Navis, Stephan J. L. Bakker

Published in: European Journal of Nutrition | Issue 2/2024

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Abstract

Purpose

We investigated the associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) with total and type of fish intake in a large general population and validated whether types of fish intake were differently associated with plasma EPA and DHA in a subset of the population.

Methods

From the Lifelines Cohort Study, 94,246 participants aged 44 ± 13 years old were included to test the association of two SEP indicators, i.e., education level and household income level, with dietary intakes of total, oily, lean, fried, and other types of fish. In a subset of 575 participants (mean age: 50 ± 13 years), EPA and DHA levels were measured in plasma phospholipids and triglycerides. Dietary fish intake was assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaire. Linear regressions were applied and adjusted for relevant covariates.

Results

Compared to the high education level, lower education levels were negatively associated with total, oily, lean, and other fish intake (p < 0.001 for all), and positively associated with fried fish intake (β (SE): 0.04 (0.04), p < 0.001 for middle education; 0.07 (0.04), p < 0.001 for low education), independently of relevant covariates. Similar results were observed for income levels. In the subset population, total and oily fish intakes were positively associated with plasma EPA and DHA (p < 0.02 for all). Lean and other fish intakes were positively associated with only DHA (p < 0.008 for all), but not EPA, while fried fish was not associated with either EPA or DHA in plasma (p > 0.1 for all).

Conclusion

Lower SEP was associated with a lower total intake of fish, and of oily and lean fish, but with higher intake of fried fish. Fried fish was not associated with the fish-based EPA and DHA in plasma. Hence, SEP-related differences in fish consumption are both quantitative and qualitative.
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Metadata
Title
Types of fish consumption differ across socioeconomic strata and impact differently on plasma fish-based omega-3 fatty acids: a cross-sectional study
Authors
Yinjie Zhu
Jochen O. Mierau
Ineke J. Riphagen
M. Rebecca Heiner-Fokkema
Louise H. Dekker
Gerjan J. Navis
Stephan J. L. Bakker
Publication date
20-11-2023
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
European Journal of Nutrition / Issue 2/2024
Print ISSN: 1436-6207
Electronic ISSN: 1436-6215
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-023-03274-x

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