Skip to main content
Top
Published in:

Open Access 26-06-2024 | Type 2 Diabetes | Review

Challenges and opportunities in the management of type 2 diabetes in patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: a tailored diagnosis and treatment review

Authors: Guillaume Mahé, Victor Aboyans, Emmanuel Cosson, Kamel Mohammedi, Gabrielle Sarlon-Bartoli, Damien Lanéelle, Tristan Mirault, Patrice Darmon

Published in: Cardiovascular Diabetology | Issue 1/2024

Login to get access

Abstract

Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) often results from atherosclerosis, and is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Individuals with T2DM exhibit a more severe manifestation and a more distal distribution of PAD compared to those without diabetes, adding complexity to the therapeutic management of PAD in this particular patient population. Indeed, the management of PAD in patients with T2DM requires a multidisciplinary and individualized approach that addresses both the systemic effects of diabetes and the specific vascular complications of PAD. Hence, cardiovascular prevention is of the utmost importance in patients with T2DM and PAD, and encompasses smoking cessation, a healthy diet, structured exercise, careful foot monitoring, and adherence to routine preventive treatments such as statins, antiplatelet agents, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. It is also recommended to incorporate glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) in the medical management of patients with T2DM and PAD, due to their demonstrated cardiovascular benefits. However, the specific impact of these novel glucose-lowering agents for individuals with PAD remains obscured within the background of cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs). In this review article, we distil evidence, through a comprehensive literature search of CVOTs and clinical guidelines, to offer key directions for the optimal medical management of individuals with T2DM and lower extremity PAD in the era of GLP-1RA and SGLT2i.
Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Literature
1.
go back to reference Adou C, Magne J, Gazere N, Aouida M, Chastaingt L, Aboyans V. Global epidemiology of lower extremity artery disease in the 21st century (2000–2021): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2024;31(7):803–11.PubMedCrossRef Adou C, Magne J, Gazere N, Aouida M, Chastaingt L, Aboyans V. Global epidemiology of lower extremity artery disease in the 21st century (2000–2021): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2024;31(7):803–11.PubMedCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Jude EB, Oyibo SO, Chalmers N, Boulton AJ. Peripheral arterial disease in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: a comparison of severity and outcome. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(8):1433–7.PubMedCrossRef Jude EB, Oyibo SO, Chalmers N, Boulton AJ. Peripheral arterial disease in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: a comparison of severity and outcome. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(8):1433–7.PubMedCrossRef
3.
go back to reference Mohammedi K, Woodward M, Hirakawa Y, Zoungas S, Colagiuri S, Hamet P, et al. Presentations of major peripheral arterial disease and risk of major outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the ADVANCE-ON study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15(1):129.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mohammedi K, Woodward M, Hirakawa Y, Zoungas S, Colagiuri S, Hamet P, et al. Presentations of major peripheral arterial disease and risk of major outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the ADVANCE-ON study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15(1):129.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
4.
go back to reference Criqui MH, Matsushita K, Aboyans V, Hess CN, Hicks CW, Kwan TW, et al. Lower extremity peripheral artery disease: contemporary epidemiology, management gaps, and future directions: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021;144(9):e171–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Criqui MH, Matsushita K, Aboyans V, Hess CN, Hicks CW, Kwan TW, et al. Lower extremity peripheral artery disease: contemporary epidemiology, management gaps, and future directions: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021;144(9):e171–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
5.
go back to reference Bhandari N, Newman JD, Berger JS, Smilowitz NR. Diabetes mellitus and outcomes of lower extremity revascularization for peripheral artery disease. Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2022;8(3):298–306.PubMedCrossRef Bhandari N, Newman JD, Berger JS, Smilowitz NR. Diabetes mellitus and outcomes of lower extremity revascularization for peripheral artery disease. Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2022;8(3):298–306.PubMedCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Geiss LS, Li Y, Hora I, Albright A, Rolka D, Gregg EW. Resurgence of diabetes-related nontraumatic lower-extremity amputation in the young and middle-aged adult U.S. population. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(1):50–4.PubMedCrossRef Geiss LS, Li Y, Hora I, Albright A, Rolka D, Gregg EW. Resurgence of diabetes-related nontraumatic lower-extremity amputation in the young and middle-aged adult U.S. population. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(1):50–4.PubMedCrossRef
7.
go back to reference Stewart CC, Berhaneselase E, Morshed S. The burden of patients with lower limb amputations in a community safety-net hospital. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2022;30(1):e59–66.PubMedCrossRef Stewart CC, Berhaneselase E, Morshed S. The burden of patients with lower limb amputations in a community safety-net hospital. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2022;30(1):e59–66.PubMedCrossRef
8.
go back to reference GBD 2019 Peripheral Artery Disease Collaborators. Global burden of peripheral artery disease and its risk factors, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet Glob Health. 2023;11(10):e1553–65.CrossRef GBD 2019 Peripheral Artery Disease Collaborators. Global burden of peripheral artery disease and its risk factors, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet Glob Health. 2023;11(10):e1553–65.CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Marso SP, Hiatt WR. Peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(5):921–9.PubMedCrossRef Marso SP, Hiatt WR. Peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(5):921–9.PubMedCrossRef
10.
go back to reference Barnes JA, Eid MA, Creager MA, Goodney PP. Epidemiology and risk of amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2020;40(8):1808–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Barnes JA, Eid MA, Creager MA, Goodney PP. Epidemiology and risk of amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2020;40(8):1808–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
11.
go back to reference Gerhard-Herman MD, Gornik HL, Barrett C, Barshes NR, Corriere MA, Drachman DE, et al. 2016 AHA/ACC Guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice guidelines. Circulation. 2017;135(12):e726–79.PubMed Gerhard-Herman MD, Gornik HL, Barrett C, Barshes NR, Corriere MA, Drachman DE, et al. 2016 AHA/ACC Guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice guidelines. Circulation. 2017;135(12):e726–79.PubMed
12.
go back to reference Aboyans V, Ricco JB, Bartelink MEL, Björck M, Brodmann M, Cohnert T, et al. 2017 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS): document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteriesEndorsed by: the European Stroke Organization (ESO)the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS). Eur Heart J. 2018;39(9):763–816.PubMedCrossRef Aboyans V, Ricco JB, Bartelink MEL, Björck M, Brodmann M, Cohnert T, et al. 2017 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS): document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteriesEndorsed by: the European Stroke Organization (ESO)the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS). Eur Heart J. 2018;39(9):763–816.PubMedCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Fitridge R, Chuter V, Mills J, Hinchliffe R, Azuma N, Behrendt CA et al. The intersocietal IWGDF, ESVS, SVS guidelines on peripheral artery disease in people with diabetes and a foot ulcer. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2023;40(3):e3686. https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3686 Fitridge R, Chuter V, Mills J, Hinchliffe R, Azuma N, Behrendt CA et al. The intersocietal IWGDF, ESVS, SVS guidelines on peripheral artery disease in people with diabetes and a foot ulcer. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2023;40(3):e3686. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​dmrr.​3686
14.
go back to reference Yi TW, Wong MMY, Neuen BL, Arnott C, Poirier P, Seufert J, et al. Effects of canagliflozin on cardiovascular and kidney events in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without peripheral arterial disease: integrated analysis from the CANVAS program and CREDENCE trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2023;25(7):2043–7.PubMedCrossRef Yi TW, Wong MMY, Neuen BL, Arnott C, Poirier P, Seufert J, et al. Effects of canagliflozin on cardiovascular and kidney events in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without peripheral arterial disease: integrated analysis from the CANVAS program and CREDENCE trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2023;25(7):2043–7.PubMedCrossRef
15.
go back to reference Butt JH, Kondo T, Yang M, Jhund PS, Docherty KF, Vaduganathan M, et al. Heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and dapagliflozin: a patient-level meta-analysis of DAPA-HF and DELIVER. Eur Heart J. 2023;44(24):2170–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Butt JH, Kondo T, Yang M, Jhund PS, Docherty KF, Vaduganathan M, et al. Heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and dapagliflozin: a patient-level meta-analysis of DAPA-HF and DELIVER. Eur Heart J. 2023;44(24):2170–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
16.
go back to reference Verma S, Mazer CD, Al-Omran M, Inzucchi SE, Fitchett D, Hehnke U, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes and safety of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and peripheral artery disease: a subanalysis of EMPA-REG OUTCOME. Circulation. 2018;137(4):405–7.PubMedCrossRef Verma S, Mazer CD, Al-Omran M, Inzucchi SE, Fitchett D, Hehnke U, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes and safety of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and peripheral artery disease: a subanalysis of EMPA-REG OUTCOME. Circulation. 2018;137(4):405–7.PubMedCrossRef
17.
go back to reference Verma S, Al-Omran M, Leiter LA, Mazer CD, Rasmussen S, Saevereid HA, et al. Cardiovascular efficacy of liraglutide and semaglutide in individuals with diabetes and peripheral artery disease. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2022;24(7):1288–99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Verma S, Al-Omran M, Leiter LA, Mazer CD, Rasmussen S, Saevereid HA, et al. Cardiovascular efficacy of liraglutide and semaglutide in individuals with diabetes and peripheral artery disease. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2022;24(7):1288–99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Badjatiya A, Merrill P, Buse JB, Goodman SG, Katona B, Iqbal N, et al. Clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and peripheral artery disease: results from the EXSCEL Trial. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2019;12(12):e008018.PubMedCrossRef Badjatiya A, Merrill P, Buse JB, Goodman SG, Katona B, Iqbal N, et al. Clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and peripheral artery disease: results from the EXSCEL Trial. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2019;12(12):e008018.PubMedCrossRef
19.
go back to reference Dhand S. Multidisciplinary approach to PAD: Who’s on your team? Semin Intervent Radiol. 2018;35(5):378–83.PubMedCrossRef Dhand S. Multidisciplinary approach to PAD: Who’s on your team? Semin Intervent Radiol. 2018;35(5):378–83.PubMedCrossRef
20.
go back to reference American Diabetes Association. Peripheral arterial disease in people with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(12):3333–41.CrossRef American Diabetes Association. Peripheral arterial disease in people with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(12):3333–41.CrossRef
21.
go back to reference American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee. 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: standards of care in diabetes-2024. Diabetes Care. 2024;47(Suppl 1):S179–218.CrossRef American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee. 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: standards of care in diabetes-2024. Diabetes Care. 2024;47(Suppl 1):S179–218.CrossRef
22.
go back to reference ElSayed NA, Aleppo G, Aroda VR, Bannuru RR, Brown FM, Bruemmer D, et al. 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: standards of care in diabetes-2023. Diabetes Care. 2023;46(Suppl 1):S158–90.PubMedCrossRef ElSayed NA, Aleppo G, Aroda VR, Bannuru RR, Brown FM, Bruemmer D, et al. 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: standards of care in diabetes-2023. Diabetes Care. 2023;46(Suppl 1):S158–90.PubMedCrossRef
23.
go back to reference Chuter V, Quigley F, Tosenovsky P, Ritter JC, Charles J, Cheney J, et al. Australian guideline on diagnosis and management of peripheral artery disease: part of the 2021 Australian evidence-based guidelines for diabetes-related foot disease. J Foot Ankle Res. 2022;15(1):51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Chuter V, Quigley F, Tosenovsky P, Ritter JC, Charles J, Cheney J, et al. Australian guideline on diagnosis and management of peripheral artery disease: part of the 2021 Australian evidence-based guidelines for diabetes-related foot disease. J Foot Ankle Res. 2022;15(1):51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Abramson BL, Al-Omran M, Anand SS, Albalawi Z, Coutinho T, de Mestral C, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2022 guidelines for peripheral arterial disease. Can J Cardiol. 2022;38(5):560–87.PubMedCrossRef Abramson BL, Al-Omran M, Anand SS, Albalawi Z, Coutinho T, de Mestral C, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2022 guidelines for peripheral arterial disease. Can J Cardiol. 2022;38(5):560–87.PubMedCrossRef
25.
go back to reference Wang A, Lv G, Cheng X, Ma X, Wang W, Gui J, et al. Guidelines on multidisciplinary approaches for the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease (2020 edition). Burns Trauma. 2020;8:tkaa017.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wang A, Lv G, Cheng X, Ma X, Wang W, Gui J, et al. Guidelines on multidisciplinary approaches for the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease (2020 edition). Burns Trauma. 2020;8:tkaa017.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
26.
go back to reference Marx N, Federici M, Schütt K, Müller-Wieland D, Ajjan RA, Antunes MJ, et al. 2023 ESC guidelines for the management of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Eur Heart J. 2023;44(39):4043–140.PubMedCrossRef Marx N, Federici M, Schütt K, Müller-Wieland D, Ajjan RA, Antunes MJ, et al. 2023 ESC guidelines for the management of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Eur Heart J. 2023;44(39):4043–140.PubMedCrossRef
27.
go back to reference Aboyans V, Bauersachs R, Mazzolai L, Brodmann M, Palomares JFR, Debus S, et al. Antithrombotic therapies in aortic and peripheral arterial diseases in 2021: a consensus document from the ESC working group on aorta and peripheral vascular diseases, the ESC working group on thrombosis, and the ESC working group on cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Eur Heart J. 2021;42(39):4013–24.PubMedCrossRef Aboyans V, Bauersachs R, Mazzolai L, Brodmann M, Palomares JFR, Debus S, et al. Antithrombotic therapies in aortic and peripheral arterial diseases in 2021: a consensus document from the ESC working group on aorta and peripheral vascular diseases, the ESC working group on thrombosis, and the ESC working group on cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Eur Heart J. 2021;42(39):4013–24.PubMedCrossRef
28.
go back to reference Nordanstig J, Behrendt CA, Baumgartner I, Belch J, Bäck M, Fitridge R, et al. European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) 2024 clinical practice guidelines on the management of asymptomatic lower limb peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2024;67(1):9–96.PubMedCrossRef Nordanstig J, Behrendt CA, Baumgartner I, Belch J, Bäck M, Fitridge R, et al. European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) 2024 clinical practice guidelines on the management of asymptomatic lower limb peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2024;67(1):9–96.PubMedCrossRef
29.
go back to reference Balletshofer B, Ito W, Lawall H, Malyar N, Oberländer Y, Reimer P, et al. Position paper on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in people with diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2019;127(S 01):S105–13.PubMedCrossRef Balletshofer B, Ito W, Lawall H, Malyar N, Oberländer Y, Reimer P, et al. Position paper on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in people with diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2019;127(S 01):S105–13.PubMedCrossRef
30.
go back to reference Balletshofer B, Böckler D, Diener H, Heckenkamp J, Ito W, Katoh M, et al. Position paper on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in people with diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2022;130(S 01):S127–36.PubMedCrossRef Balletshofer B, Böckler D, Diener H, Heckenkamp J, Ito W, Katoh M, et al. Position paper on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in people with diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2022;130(S 01):S127–36.PubMedCrossRef
31.
go back to reference Mahé G, Boge G, Bura-Rivière A, Chakfé N, Constans J, Goueffic Y, et al. Disparities between international guidelines (AHA/ESC/ESVS/ESVM/SVS) concerning lower extremity arterial disease: consensus of the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the French Society for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (SCVE). Ann Vasc Surg. 2021;72:1–56.PubMedCrossRef Mahé G, Boge G, Bura-Rivière A, Chakfé N, Constans J, Goueffic Y, et al. Disparities between international guidelines (AHA/ESC/ESVS/ESVM/SVS) concerning lower extremity arterial disease: consensus of the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the French Society for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (SCVE). Ann Vasc Surg. 2021;72:1–56.PubMedCrossRef
32.
go back to reference Matthews DR, Li Q, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW, de Zeeuw D, Fulcher G, et al. Effects of canagliflozin on amputation risk in type 2 diabetes: the CANVAS program. Diabetologia. 2019;62(6):926–38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Matthews DR, Li Q, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW, de Zeeuw D, Fulcher G, et al. Effects of canagliflozin on amputation risk in type 2 diabetes: the CANVAS program. Diabetologia. 2019;62(6):926–38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
33.
go back to reference Barraclough JY, Yu J, Figtree GA, Perkovic V, Heerspink HJL, Neuen BL, et al. Cardiovascular and renal outcomes with canagliflozin in patients with peripheral arterial disease: data from the CANVAS Program and CREDENCE trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2022;24(6):1072–83.PubMedCrossRef Barraclough JY, Yu J, Figtree GA, Perkovic V, Heerspink HJL, Neuen BL, et al. Cardiovascular and renal outcomes with canagliflozin in patients with peripheral arterial disease: data from the CANVAS Program and CREDENCE trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2022;24(6):1072–83.PubMedCrossRef
34.
go back to reference Arnott C, Huang Y, Neuen BL, Di Tanna GL, Cannon CP, Oh R, et al. The effect of canagliflozin on amputation risk in the CANVAS program and the CREDENCE trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020;22(10):1753–66.PubMedCrossRef Arnott C, Huang Y, Neuen BL, Di Tanna GL, Cannon CP, Oh R, et al. The effect of canagliflozin on amputation risk in the CANVAS program and the CREDENCE trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020;22(10):1753–66.PubMedCrossRef
35.
go back to reference Bonaca MP, Wiviott SD, Zelniker TA, Mosenzon O, Bhatt DL, Leiter LA, et al. Dapagliflozin and cardiac, kidney, and limb outcomes in patients with and without peripheral artery disease in DECLARE-TIMI 58. Circulation. 2020;142(8):734–47.PubMedCrossRef Bonaca MP, Wiviott SD, Zelniker TA, Mosenzon O, Bhatt DL, Leiter LA, et al. Dapagliflozin and cardiac, kidney, and limb outcomes in patients with and without peripheral artery disease in DECLARE-TIMI 58. Circulation. 2020;142(8):734–47.PubMedCrossRef
36.
go back to reference Inzucchi SE, Iliev H, Pfarr E, Zinman B. Empagliflozin and assessment of lower-limb amputations in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(1):e4–5.PubMedCrossRef Inzucchi SE, Iliev H, Pfarr E, Zinman B. Empagliflozin and assessment of lower-limb amputations in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(1):e4–5.PubMedCrossRef
37.
go back to reference Cannon CP, Pratley R, Dagogo-Jack S, Mancuso J, Huyck S, Masiukiewicz U, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes with ertugliflozin in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(15):1425–35.PubMedCrossRef Cannon CP, Pratley R, Dagogo-Jack S, Mancuso J, Huyck S, Masiukiewicz U, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes with ertugliflozin in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(15):1425–35.PubMedCrossRef
38.
go back to reference Bhatt DL, Szarek M, Steg PG, Cannon CP, Leiter LA, McGuire DK, et al. Sotagliflozin in patients with diabetes and recent worsening heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(2):117–28.PubMedCrossRef Bhatt DL, Szarek M, Steg PG, Cannon CP, Leiter LA, McGuire DK, et al. Sotagliflozin in patients with diabetes and recent worsening heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(2):117–28.PubMedCrossRef
39.
go back to reference Cherney DZI, Ferrannini E, Umpierrez GE, Peters AL, Rosenstock J, Powell DR, et al. Efficacy and safety of sotagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2023;25(6):1646–57.PubMedCrossRef Cherney DZI, Ferrannini E, Umpierrez GE, Peters AL, Rosenstock J, Powell DR, et al. Efficacy and safety of sotagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2023;25(6):1646–57.PubMedCrossRef
40.
go back to reference Cherney DZI, Ferrannini E, Umpierrez GE, Peters AL, Rosenstock J, Carroll AK, et al. Efficacy and safety of sotagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe renal impairment. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2021;23(12):2632–42.PubMedCrossRef Cherney DZI, Ferrannini E, Umpierrez GE, Peters AL, Rosenstock J, Carroll AK, et al. Efficacy and safety of sotagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe renal impairment. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2021;23(12):2632–42.PubMedCrossRef
41.
go back to reference Dhatariya K, Bain SC, Buse JB, Simpson R, Tarnow L, Kaltoft MS, et al. The impact of liraglutide on diabetes-related foot ulceration and associated complications in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events: results from the LEADER trial. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(10):2229–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Dhatariya K, Bain SC, Buse JB, Simpson R, Tarnow L, Kaltoft MS, et al. The impact of liraglutide on diabetes-related foot ulceration and associated complications in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events: results from the LEADER trial. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(10):2229–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
42.
go back to reference Mohammedi K, Woodward M, Hirakawa Y, Zoungas S, Williams B, Lisheng L, et al. Microvascular and macrovascular disease and risk for major peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(10):1796–803.PubMedCrossRef Mohammedi K, Woodward M, Hirakawa Y, Zoungas S, Williams B, Lisheng L, et al. Microvascular and macrovascular disease and risk for major peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(10):1796–803.PubMedCrossRef
43.
go back to reference Fadini GP, Albiero M, Bonora BM, Avogaro A. Angiogenic abnormalities in diabetes mellitus: mechanistic and clinical aspects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019;104(11):5431–44.PubMedCrossRef Fadini GP, Albiero M, Bonora BM, Avogaro A. Angiogenic abnormalities in diabetes mellitus: mechanistic and clinical aspects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019;104(11):5431–44.PubMedCrossRef
44.
go back to reference Golledge J. Update on the pathophysiology and medical treatment of peripheral artery disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2022;19(7):456–74.PubMedCrossRef Golledge J. Update on the pathophysiology and medical treatment of peripheral artery disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2022;19(7):456–74.PubMedCrossRef
45.
go back to reference Mauricio D, Gratacòs M, Franch-Nadal J. Diabetic microvascular disease in non-classical beds: the hidden impact beyond the retina, the kidney, and the peripheral nerves. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):314.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mauricio D, Gratacòs M, Franch-Nadal J. Diabetic microvascular disease in non-classical beds: the hidden impact beyond the retina, the kidney, and the peripheral nerves. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):314.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
46.
go back to reference Paneni F, Beckman JA, Creager MA, Cosentino F. Diabetes and vascular disease: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy: part I. Eur Heart J. 2013;34(31):2436–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Paneni F, Beckman JA, Creager MA, Cosentino F. Diabetes and vascular disease: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy: part I. Eur Heart J. 2013;34(31):2436–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
47.
go back to reference Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2001;286(3):327–34.PubMedCrossRef Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2001;286(3):327–34.PubMedCrossRef
48.
go back to reference Nativel M, Schneider F, Saulnier PJ, Gand E, Ragot S, Meilhac O, et al. Prognostic values of inflammatory and redox status biomarkers on the risk of major lower-extremity artery disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(10):2162–9.PubMedCrossRef Nativel M, Schneider F, Saulnier PJ, Gand E, Ragot S, Meilhac O, et al. Prognostic values of inflammatory and redox status biomarkers on the risk of major lower-extremity artery disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(10):2162–9.PubMedCrossRef
51.
go back to reference Kakouros N, Rade JJ, Kourliouros A, Resar JR. Platelet function in patients with diabetes mellitus: from a theoretical to a practical perspective. Int J Endocrinol. 2011;2011:742719.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kakouros N, Rade JJ, Kourliouros A, Resar JR. Platelet function in patients with diabetes mellitus: from a theoretical to a practical perspective. Int J Endocrinol. 2011;2011:742719.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
52.
go back to reference Gibbons GW, Shaw PM. Diabetic vascular disease: characteristics of vascular disease unique to the diabetic patient. Semin Vasc Surg. 2012;25(2):89–92.PubMedCrossRef Gibbons GW, Shaw PM. Diabetic vascular disease: characteristics of vascular disease unique to the diabetic patient. Semin Vasc Surg. 2012;25(2):89–92.PubMedCrossRef
53.
go back to reference Mahé G, Ouedraogo N, Leftheriotis G, Vielle B, Picquet J, Abraham P. Exercise treadmill testing in patients with claudication, with and without diabetes. Diabet Med. 2011;28(3):356–62.PubMedCrossRef Mahé G, Ouedraogo N, Leftheriotis G, Vielle B, Picquet J, Abraham P. Exercise treadmill testing in patients with claudication, with and without diabetes. Diabet Med. 2011;28(3):356–62.PubMedCrossRef
54.
go back to reference Mercier C, Brazeau T, Lamoureux J, Boisvert E, Robillard S, Breton V, et al. Diabetes impaired ischemia-induced PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) signaling actions and vessel formation through the activation of Scr homology 2-containing phosphatase-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2021;41(9):2469–82.PubMedCrossRef Mercier C, Brazeau T, Lamoureux J, Boisvert E, Robillard S, Breton V, et al. Diabetes impaired ischemia-induced PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) signaling actions and vessel formation through the activation of Scr homology 2-containing phosphatase-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2021;41(9):2469–82.PubMedCrossRef
55.
go back to reference Behroozian A, Beckman JA. Microvascular disease increases amputation in patients with peripheral artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2020;40(3):534–40.PubMedCrossRef Behroozian A, Beckman JA. Microvascular disease increases amputation in patients with peripheral artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2020;40(3):534–40.PubMedCrossRef
56.
go back to reference Lee MS, Rha SW, Han SK, Choi BG, Choi SY, Ali J, et al. Comparison of diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing endovascular revascularization for peripheral arterial disease. J Invasive Cardiol. 2015;27(3):167–71.PubMed Lee MS, Rha SW, Han SK, Choi BG, Choi SY, Ali J, et al. Comparison of diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing endovascular revascularization for peripheral arterial disease. J Invasive Cardiol. 2015;27(3):167–71.PubMed
57.
go back to reference Foussard N, Saulnier PJ, Potier L, Ragot S, Schneider F, Gand E, et al. Relationship between diabetic retinopathy stages and risk of major lower-extremity arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2020;43(11):2751–9.PubMedCrossRef Foussard N, Saulnier PJ, Potier L, Ragot S, Schneider F, Gand E, et al. Relationship between diabetic retinopathy stages and risk of major lower-extremity arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2020;43(11):2751–9.PubMedCrossRef
58.
go back to reference Hinchliffe RJ, Forsythe RO, Apelqvist J, Boyko EJ, Fitridge R, Hong JP, et al. Guidelines on diagnosis, prognosis, and management of peripheral artery disease in patients with foot ulcers and diabetes (IWGDF 2019 update). Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2020;36(Suppl 1):e3276.PubMedCrossRef Hinchliffe RJ, Forsythe RO, Apelqvist J, Boyko EJ, Fitridge R, Hong JP, et al. Guidelines on diagnosis, prognosis, and management of peripheral artery disease in patients with foot ulcers and diabetes (IWGDF 2019 update). Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2020;36(Suppl 1):e3276.PubMedCrossRef
59.
go back to reference Mohammedi K, Woodward M, Zoungas S, Li Q, Harrap S, Patel A, et al. Absence of peripheral pulses and risk of major vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(12):2270–7.PubMedCrossRef Mohammedi K, Woodward M, Zoungas S, Li Q, Harrap S, Patel A, et al. Absence of peripheral pulses and risk of major vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(12):2270–7.PubMedCrossRef
60.
go back to reference Trihan JE, Lanéelle D, Metcalfe N, Perez Martin A, Frances P. Diabetes-associated dermatological manifestations in primary care and their association with vascular complications. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2020;19(2):989–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Trihan JE, Lanéelle D, Metcalfe N, Perez Martin A, Frances P. Diabetes-associated dermatological manifestations in primary care and their association with vascular complications. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2020;19(2):989–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
61.
go back to reference Conte MS, Bradbury AW, Kolh P, White JV, Dick F, Fitridge R, et al. Global vascular guidelines on the management of chronic limb-threatening ischemia. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2019;58(1S):S1–Se10933.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Conte MS, Bradbury AW, Kolh P, White JV, Dick F, Fitridge R, et al. Global vascular guidelines on the management of chronic limb-threatening ischemia. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2019;58(1S):S1–Se10933.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
62.
go back to reference AbuRahma AF, Adams E, AbuRahma J, Mata LA, Dean LS, Caron C, et al. Critical analysis and limitations of resting ankle-brachial index in the diagnosis of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease patients and the role of diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. J Vasc Surg. 2020;71(3):937–45.PubMedCrossRef AbuRahma AF, Adams E, AbuRahma J, Mata LA, Dean LS, Caron C, et al. Critical analysis and limitations of resting ankle-brachial index in the diagnosis of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease patients and the role of diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. J Vasc Surg. 2020;71(3):937–45.PubMedCrossRef
63.
go back to reference Tehan PE, Sebastian M, Barwick AL, Chuter VH. How sensitive and specific is continuous-wave doppler for detecting peripheral arterial disease in people with and without diabetes? A cross-sectional study. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2018;15(5):396–401.PubMedCrossRef Tehan PE, Sebastian M, Barwick AL, Chuter VH. How sensitive and specific is continuous-wave doppler for detecting peripheral arterial disease in people with and without diabetes? A cross-sectional study. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2018;15(5):396–401.PubMedCrossRef
64.
go back to reference Trihan JE, Mahé G, Croquette M, Coutant V, Thollot C, Guillaumat J, et al. Accuracy of acceleration time of distal arteries to diagnose severe peripheral arterial disease. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021;8:744354.PubMedCrossRef Trihan JE, Mahé G, Croquette M, Coutant V, Thollot C, Guillaumat J, et al. Accuracy of acceleration time of distal arteries to diagnose severe peripheral arterial disease. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021;8:744354.PubMedCrossRef
65.
go back to reference Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Redmond N, Lin JS. Screening for peripheral artery disease using the ankle-brachial index: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2018;320(2):184–96.PubMedCrossRef Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Redmond N, Lin JS. Screening for peripheral artery disease using the ankle-brachial index: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2018;320(2):184–96.PubMedCrossRef
66.
go back to reference Olin JW, Halperin JL. US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement regarding screening for peripheral artery disease with the ankle-brachial index: déjà vu all over again. Lancet. 2018;392(10153):1160–2.PubMedCrossRef Olin JW, Halperin JL. US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement regarding screening for peripheral artery disease with the ankle-brachial index: déjà vu all over again. Lancet. 2018;392(10153):1160–2.PubMedCrossRef
67.
go back to reference Sprenger L, Mader A, Larcher B, Mächler M, Vonbank A, Zanolin-Purin D, et al. Type 2 diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular events in peripheral artery disease versus coronary artery disease. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2021;9(2):e002407.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Sprenger L, Mader A, Larcher B, Mächler M, Vonbank A, Zanolin-Purin D, et al. Type 2 diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular events in peripheral artery disease versus coronary artery disease. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2021;9(2):e002407.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
68.
go back to reference Momsen AH, Jensen MB, Norager CB, Madsen MR, Vestersgaard-Andersen T, Lindholt JS. Drug therapy for improving walking distance in intermittent claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis of robust randomised controlled studies. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;38(4):463–74.PubMedCrossRef Momsen AH, Jensen MB, Norager CB, Madsen MR, Vestersgaard-Andersen T, Lindholt JS. Drug therapy for improving walking distance in intermittent claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis of robust randomised controlled studies. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;38(4):463–74.PubMedCrossRef
69.
go back to reference Bonaca MP, Nault P, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, Pineda AL, Kanevsky E, et al. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering with evolocumab and outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease: insights from the FOURIER trial (further cardiovascular outcomes research with PCSK9 inhibition in subjects with elevated risk). Circulation. 2018;137(4):338–50.PubMedCrossRef Bonaca MP, Nault P, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, Pineda AL, Kanevsky E, et al. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering with evolocumab and outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease: insights from the FOURIER trial (further cardiovascular outcomes research with PCSK9 inhibition in subjects with elevated risk). Circulation. 2018;137(4):338–50.PubMedCrossRef
70.
go back to reference Schwartz GG, Steg PG, Szarek M, Bittner VA, Diaz R, Goodman SG, et al. Peripheral artery disease and venous thromboembolic events after acute coronary syndrome: role of lipoprotein(a) and modification by alirocumab: prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial. Circulation. 2020;141(20):1608–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Schwartz GG, Steg PG, Szarek M, Bittner VA, Diaz R, Goodman SG, et al. Peripheral artery disease and venous thromboembolic events after acute coronary syndrome: role of lipoprotein(a) and modification by alirocumab: prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial. Circulation. 2020;141(20):1608–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
71.
go back to reference Bonaca MP, Bauersachs RM, Anand SS, Debus ES, Nehler MR, Patel MR, et al. Rivaroxaban in peripheral artery disease after revascularization. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(21):1994–2004.PubMedCrossRef Bonaca MP, Bauersachs RM, Anand SS, Debus ES, Nehler MR, Patel MR, et al. Rivaroxaban in peripheral artery disease after revascularization. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(21):1994–2004.PubMedCrossRef
72.
go back to reference Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Bosch J, Dagenais GR, Hart RG, Shestakovska O, et al. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(14):1319–30.PubMedCrossRef Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Bosch J, Dagenais GR, Hart RG, Shestakovska O, et al. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(14):1319–30.PubMedCrossRef
73.
go back to reference Kaplovitch E, Eikelboom JW, Dyal L, Aboyans V, Abola MT, Verhamme P, et al. Rivaroxaban and aspirin in patients with symptomatic lower extremity peripheral artery disease: a subanalysis of the COMPASS randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2021;6(1):21–9.PubMed Kaplovitch E, Eikelboom JW, Dyal L, Aboyans V, Abola MT, Verhamme P, et al. Rivaroxaban and aspirin in patients with symptomatic lower extremity peripheral artery disease: a subanalysis of the COMPASS randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2021;6(1):21–9.PubMed
74.
go back to reference Ruiz-Canela M, Estruch R, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez-González MA. Association of Mediterranean diet with peripheral artery disease: the PREDIMED randomized trial. JAMA. 2014;311(4):415–7.PubMedCrossRef Ruiz-Canela M, Estruch R, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez-González MA. Association of Mediterranean diet with peripheral artery disease: the PREDIMED randomized trial. JAMA. 2014;311(4):415–7.PubMedCrossRef
75.
go back to reference Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, Cull CA, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ. 2000;321(7258):405–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, Cull CA, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ. 2000;321(7258):405–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
76.
go back to reference Low Wang CC, Blomster JI, Heizer G, Berger JS, Baumgartner I, Fowkes FGR, et al. Cardiovascular and Limb outcomes in patients with diabetes and peripheral artery disease: the EUCLID trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72(25):3274–84.PubMedCrossRef Low Wang CC, Blomster JI, Heizer G, Berger JS, Baumgartner I, Fowkes FGR, et al. Cardiovascular and Limb outcomes in patients with diabetes and peripheral artery disease: the EUCLID trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72(25):3274–84.PubMedCrossRef
77.
go back to reference Caruso P, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Esposito K, Giugliano D. Pleiotropic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on peripheral artery disease: Is there any hope? Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2023;39(7):e3627.PubMedCrossRef Caruso P, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Esposito K, Giugliano D. Pleiotropic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on peripheral artery disease: Is there any hope? Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2023;39(7):e3627.PubMedCrossRef
78.
go back to reference Rizzo M, Abate N, Chandalia M, Rizvi AA, Giglio RV, Nikolic D, et al. Liraglutide reduces oxidative stress and restores heme oxygenase-1 and ghrelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a prospective pilot study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(2):603–6.PubMedCrossRef Rizzo M, Abate N, Chandalia M, Rizvi AA, Giglio RV, Nikolic D, et al. Liraglutide reduces oxidative stress and restores heme oxygenase-1 and ghrelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a prospective pilot study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(2):603–6.PubMedCrossRef
79.
go back to reference Rizzo M, Rizvi AA, Patti AM, Nikolic D, Giglio RV, Castellino G, et al. Liraglutide improves metabolic parameters and carotid intima-media thickness in diabetic patients with the metabolic syndrome: an 18-month prospective study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15(1):162.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Rizzo M, Rizvi AA, Patti AM, Nikolic D, Giglio RV, Castellino G, et al. Liraglutide improves metabolic parameters and carotid intima-media thickness in diabetic patients with the metabolic syndrome: an 18-month prospective study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15(1):162.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
80.
go back to reference Patti AM, Nikolic D, Magan-Fernandez A, Giglio RV, Castellino G, Chianetta R, et al. Exenatide once-weekly improves metabolic parameters, endothelial dysfunction and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type-2 diabetes: an 8-month prospective study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019;149:163–9.PubMedCrossRef Patti AM, Nikolic D, Magan-Fernandez A, Giglio RV, Castellino G, Chianetta R, et al. Exenatide once-weekly improves metabolic parameters, endothelial dysfunction and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type-2 diabetes: an 8-month prospective study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019;149:163–9.PubMedCrossRef
81.
go back to reference Patti AM, Rizvi AA, Giglio RV, Stoian AP, Ligi D, Mannello F. Impact of glucose-lowering medications on cardiovascular and metabolic risk in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Med. 2020;9(4):912.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Patti AM, Rizvi AA, Giglio RV, Stoian AP, Ligi D, Mannello F. Impact of glucose-lowering medications on cardiovascular and metabolic risk in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Med. 2020;9(4):912.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
82.
go back to reference Giglio RV, Pantea Stoian A, Al-Rasadi K, Banach M, Patti AM, Ciaccio M, et al. Novel therapeutical approaches to managing atherosclerotic risk. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(9):4633.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Giglio RV, Pantea Stoian A, Al-Rasadi K, Banach M, Patti AM, Ciaccio M, et al. Novel therapeutical approaches to managing atherosclerotic risk. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(9):4633.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
83.
go back to reference Caruso P, Maiorino MI, Longo M, Porcellini C, Matrone R, Digitale Selvaggio L, et al. Liraglutide for lower limb perfusion in people with type 2 diabetes and peripheral artery disease: the STARDUST randomized clinical trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2024;7(3):e241545.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Caruso P, Maiorino MI, Longo M, Porcellini C, Matrone R, Digitale Selvaggio L, et al. Liraglutide for lower limb perfusion in people with type 2 diabetes and peripheral artery disease: the STARDUST randomized clinical trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2024;7(3):e241545.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
84.
go back to reference Salvatore T, Galiero R, Caturano A, Rinaldi L, Di Martino A, Albanese G, et al. An overview of the cardiorenal protective mechanisms of SGLT2 inhibitors. Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(7):3651.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Salvatore T, Galiero R, Caturano A, Rinaldi L, Di Martino A, Albanese G, et al. An overview of the cardiorenal protective mechanisms of SGLT2 inhibitors. Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(7):3651.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
85.
go back to reference Scisciola L, Taktaz F, Fontanella RA, Pesapane A, Surina, Cataldo V, et al. Targeting high glucose-induced epigenetic modifications at cardiac level: the role of SGLT2 and SGLT2 inhibitors. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Scisciola L, Taktaz F, Fontanella RA, Pesapane A, Surina, Cataldo V, et al. Targeting high glucose-induced epigenetic modifications at cardiac level: the role of SGLT2 and SGLT2 inhibitors. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
86.
go back to reference Rolek B, Haber M, Gajewska M, Rogula S, Pietrasik A, Gąsecka A. SGLT2 inhibitors vs. GLP-1 agonists to treat the heart, the kidneys and the brain. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2023;10(8):322.PubMedPubMedCentral Rolek B, Haber M, Gajewska M, Rogula S, Pietrasik A, Gąsecka A. SGLT2 inhibitors vs. GLP-1 agonists to treat the heart, the kidneys and the brain. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2023;10(8):322.PubMedPubMedCentral
87.
go back to reference Sargeant JA, Henson J, King JA, Yates T, Khunti K, Davies MJ. A review of the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on lean body mass in humans. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2019;34(3):247–62.PubMedCrossRef Sargeant JA, Henson J, King JA, Yates T, Khunti K, Davies MJ. A review of the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on lean body mass in humans. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2019;34(3):247–62.PubMedCrossRef
88.
go back to reference UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet. 1998;352(9131):854–65.CrossRef UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet. 1998;352(9131):854–65.CrossRef
89.
go back to reference Kooy A, de Jager J, Lehert P, Bets D, Wulffelé MG, Donker AJ, et al. Long-term effects of metformin on metabolism and microvascular and macrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(6):616–25.PubMedCrossRef Kooy A, de Jager J, Lehert P, Bets D, Wulffelé MG, Donker AJ, et al. Long-term effects of metformin on metabolism and microvascular and macrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(6):616–25.PubMedCrossRef
90.
go back to reference Tan S, Goudot G, Arnoux A, Tran Y, Maissoro H, Poenou G, et al. Occurrence of major local lower limb events in type 2 Diabetic patients with lower extremity arterial disease: impact of metformin. Ann Vasc Surg. 2023;90:153–61.PubMedCrossRef Tan S, Goudot G, Arnoux A, Tran Y, Maissoro H, Poenou G, et al. Occurrence of major local lower limb events in type 2 Diabetic patients with lower extremity arterial disease: impact of metformin. Ann Vasc Surg. 2023;90:153–61.PubMedCrossRef
91.
go back to reference Ferrannini G, Gerstein H, Colhoun HM, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Dyal L, et al. Similar cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes and established or high risk for coronary vascular disease treated with dulaglutide with and without baseline metformin. Eur Heart J. 2021;42(26):2565–73.PubMedCrossRef Ferrannini G, Gerstein H, Colhoun HM, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Dyal L, et al. Similar cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes and established or high risk for coronary vascular disease treated with dulaglutide with and without baseline metformin. Eur Heart J. 2021;42(26):2565–73.PubMedCrossRef
92.
go back to reference Sattar N, McGuire DK. Prevention of CV outcomes in antihyperglycaemic drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes with, or at elevated risk of, ASCVD: to start or not to start with metformin. Eur Heart J. 2021;42(26):2574–6.PubMedCrossRef Sattar N, McGuire DK. Prevention of CV outcomes in antihyperglycaemic drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes with, or at elevated risk of, ASCVD: to start or not to start with metformin. Eur Heart J. 2021;42(26):2574–6.PubMedCrossRef
93.
go back to reference Tsai PC, Chuang WJ, Ko AM, Chen JS, Chiu CH, Chen CH, et al. Neutral effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, or ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Tsai PC, Chuang WJ, Ko AM, Chen JS, Chiu CH, Chen CH, et al. Neutral effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, or ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
94.
go back to reference Takahara M, Soga Y, Fujihara M, Iida O, Kawasaki D. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor use in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing endovascular therapy for symptomatic peripheral artery disease. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):273.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Takahara M, Soga Y, Fujihara M, Iida O, Kawasaki D. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor use in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing endovascular therapy for symptomatic peripheral artery disease. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):273.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
95.
go back to reference Fu EL, D’Andrea E, Wexler DJ, Patorno E, Paik JM. Safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in patients with CKD and type 2 diabetes: population-based US Cohort Study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2023;18(5):592–601.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Fu EL, D’Andrea E, Wexler DJ, Patorno E, Paik JM. Safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in patients with CKD and type 2 diabetes: population-based US Cohort Study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2023;18(5):592–601.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
96.
go back to reference Perkovic V, Jardine MJ, Neal B, Bompoint S, Heerspink HJL, Charytan DM, et al. Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(24):2295–306.PubMedCrossRef Perkovic V, Jardine MJ, Neal B, Bompoint S, Heerspink HJL, Charytan DM, et al. Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(24):2295–306.PubMedCrossRef
97.
go back to reference Nuffield Department of Population Health Renal Studies Group; SGLT2 inhibitor Meta-Analysis Cardio-Renal Trialists’ Consortium. Impact of diabetes on the effects of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors on kidney outcomes: collaborative meta-analysis of large placebo-controlled trials. Lancet. 2022;400(10365):1788–801.CrossRef Nuffield Department of Population Health Renal Studies Group; SGLT2 inhibitor Meta-Analysis Cardio-Renal Trialists’ Consortium. Impact of diabetes on the effects of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors on kidney outcomes: collaborative meta-analysis of large placebo-controlled trials. Lancet. 2022;400(10365):1788–801.CrossRef
98.
go back to reference Ba K, Sow MA, Magne J, Salle L, Lacroix P, Chastaingt L, et al. Risk of amputation under diuretics in patients with or at risk of lower extremity arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2023;116(6–7):357–63.PubMedCrossRef Ba K, Sow MA, Magne J, Salle L, Lacroix P, Chastaingt L, et al. Risk of amputation under diuretics in patients with or at risk of lower extremity arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2023;116(6–7):357–63.PubMedCrossRef
99.
go back to reference Lin DS, Lee JK, Chen WJ. Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events in patients with diabetes treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists vs DPP-4 inhibitors. Diabetologia. 2021;64(9):1949–62.PubMedCrossRef Lin DS, Lee JK, Chen WJ. Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events in patients with diabetes treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists vs DPP-4 inhibitors. Diabetologia. 2021;64(9):1949–62.PubMedCrossRef
100.
go back to reference Lin DS, Yu AL, Lo HY, Lien CW, Lee JK, Chen WJ. Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events in people with diabetes treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists vs SGLT2 inhibitors. Diabetologia. 2022;65(12):2032–43.PubMedCrossRef Lin DS, Yu AL, Lo HY, Lien CW, Lee JK, Chen WJ. Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events in people with diabetes treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists vs SGLT2 inhibitors. Diabetologia. 2022;65(12):2032–43.PubMedCrossRef
101.
go back to reference Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, Jódar E, Leiter LA, et al. Semaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(19):1834–44.PubMedCrossRef Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, Jódar E, Leiter LA, et al. Semaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(19):1834–44.PubMedCrossRef
102.
go back to reference Holman RR, Bethel MA, Mentz RJ, Thompson VP, Lokhnygina Y, Buse JB, et al. Effects of once-weekly exenatide on cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(13):1228–39.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Holman RR, Bethel MA, Mentz RJ, Thompson VP, Lokhnygina Y, Buse JB, et al. Effects of once-weekly exenatide on cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(13):1228–39.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
103.
go back to reference Gourdy P, Darmon P, Dievart F, Halimi JM, Guerci B. Combining glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Gourdy P, Darmon P, Dievart F, Halimi JM, Guerci B. Combining glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023;22(1):79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
104.
go back to reference Mahe G, Brodmann M, Capodanno D, Ceriello A, Cuisset T, Delgado V, et al. Current management and screening of peripheral and coronary artery disease in people with diabetes mellitus in Europe. The PADDIA/CADDIA survey. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2022;184:109214.PubMedCrossRef Mahe G, Brodmann M, Capodanno D, Ceriello A, Cuisset T, Delgado V, et al. Current management and screening of peripheral and coronary artery disease in people with diabetes mellitus in Europe. The PADDIA/CADDIA survey. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2022;184:109214.PubMedCrossRef
105.
go back to reference Weng W, Tian Y, Kong SX, Ganguly R, Hersloev M, Brett J, et al. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and antidiabetes treatment characteristics among a large type 2 diabetes population in the United States. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2019;2(3):e00076.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Weng W, Tian Y, Kong SX, Ganguly R, Hersloev M, Brett J, et al. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and antidiabetes treatment characteristics among a large type 2 diabetes population in the United States. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2019;2(3):e00076.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
106.
go back to reference Mosenzon O, Alguwaihes A, Leon JLA, Bayram F, Darmon P, Davis TME, et al. CAPTURE: a multinational, cross-sectional study of cardiovascular disease prevalence in adults with type 2 diabetes across 13 countries. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2021;20(1):154.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mosenzon O, Alguwaihes A, Leon JLA, Bayram F, Darmon P, Davis TME, et al. CAPTURE: a multinational, cross-sectional study of cardiovascular disease prevalence in adults with type 2 diabetes across 13 countries. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2021;20(1):154.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
107.
go back to reference Hackam DG, Vyas MV. Utilization of vasculoprotective therapy for peripheral artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2018;131(11):1332–e93.PubMedCrossRef Hackam DG, Vyas MV. Utilization of vasculoprotective therapy for peripheral artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2018;131(11):1332–e93.PubMedCrossRef
108.
go back to reference Nather A, Siok Bee C, Keng Lin W, Xin-Bei Valerie C, Liang S, Tambyah PA, et al. Value of team approach combined with clinical pathway for diabetic foot problems: a clinical evaluation. Diabet Foot Ankle. 2010;1:5731.CrossRef Nather A, Siok Bee C, Keng Lin W, Xin-Bei Valerie C, Liang S, Tambyah PA, et al. Value of team approach combined with clinical pathway for diabetic foot problems: a clinical evaluation. Diabet Foot Ankle. 2010;1:5731.CrossRef
109.
go back to reference Wang C, Mai L, Yang C, Liu D, Sun K, Song W, et al. Reducing major lower extremity amputations after the introduction of a multidisciplinary team in patient with diabetes foot ulcer. BMC Endocr Disord. 2016;16(1):38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wang C, Mai L, Yang C, Liu D, Sun K, Song W, et al. Reducing major lower extremity amputations after the introduction of a multidisciplinary team in patient with diabetes foot ulcer. BMC Endocr Disord. 2016;16(1):38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
110.
go back to reference Hingorani A, LaMuraglia GM, Henke P, Meissner MH, Loretz L, Zinszer KM, et al. The management of diabetic foot: a clinical practice guideline by the society for vascular surgery in collaboration with the American Podiatric Medical Association and the Society for Vascular Medicine. J Vasc Surg. 2016;63(2 Suppl):s3–21.CrossRef Hingorani A, LaMuraglia GM, Henke P, Meissner MH, Loretz L, Zinszer KM, et al. The management of diabetic foot: a clinical practice guideline by the society for vascular surgery in collaboration with the American Podiatric Medical Association and the Society for Vascular Medicine. J Vasc Surg. 2016;63(2 Suppl):s3–21.CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Challenges and opportunities in the management of type 2 diabetes in patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: a tailored diagnosis and treatment review
Authors
Guillaume Mahé
Victor Aboyans
Emmanuel Cosson
Kamel Mohammedi
Gabrielle Sarlon-Bartoli
Damien Lanéelle
Tristan Mirault
Patrice Darmon
Publication date
26-06-2024

Other articles of this Issue 1/2024

Cardiovascular Diabetology 1/2024 Go to the issue
Obesity Clinical Trial Summary

At a glance: The STEP trials

A round-up of the STEP phase 3 clinical trials evaluating semaglutide for weight loss in people with overweight or obesity.

Developed by: Springer Medicine
Webinar | 06-02-2024 | 20:00 (CET)

Mastering chronic pancreatitis pain: A multidisciplinary approach and practical solutions

Severe pain is the most common symptom of chronic pancreatitis. In this webinar, experts share the latest insights in pain management for chronic pancreatitis patients. Experts from a range of disciplines discuss pertinent cases and provide practical suggestions for use within clinical practice.

Sponsored by: Viatris

Developed by: Springer Healthcare
Live Webinar | 01-10-2024 | 12:30 (CEST)

Recent advances in the use of CAR T-cell therapies in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma

Live: Tuesday 1st October 2024, 12:30-14:00 (CEST)

In this live webinar, Professor Martin Dreyling and an esteemed, international panel of CAR-T experts will discuss the very latest data on the safety, efficacy and clinical impact of CAR T-cell therapies in the treatment of r/r DLBCL and r/r FL, as presented at ASH 2023, EU CAR-T 2024, and EHA 2024. 

Please note, this webinar is not intended for healthcare professionals based in the US and UK.

Sponsored by: Novartis Pharma AG

Chaired by: Prof. Martin Dreyling
Developed by: Springer Healthcare