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25-04-2024 | Tranexamic Acid | Knee Arthroplasty

Comparative effectiveness of combined peri-articular and intra-articular injection versus intravenous and intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial study

Authors: Piya Pinsornsak, Ranet Thaveekitikul, Prem Pinsornsak, Yot Tanariyakul

Published in: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery

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Abstract

Introduction

Tranexamic acid (TXA) administration is supported by numerous evidence in reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The combination of intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) TXA administration revealed good result in blood loss reduction with less evidence of venous thromboembolism event (VTE). Several literature reviews portray that peri-articular (PA) administration yields similar hemostasis in comparison to IV route. However, there is no report on the clinical effect of combining PA + IA TXA in blood loss reduction and its complications, compared to combining IV + IA TXA after TKA.

Materials and methods

We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing the use of PA + IA TXA administration and IV + IA TXA administration in 70 patients who were scheduled for unilateral primary TKA. Thirty-five patients were assigned for PA + IA injection (Group 1) and anoter 35 patients were assigned for IV + IA injection (Group 2). Primary outcomes included total blood loss at 48 h, and the need for blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included thigh and leg circumference, degree of knee flexion, and postoperative complications.

Results

The calculated blood loss at 48 h showed no difference between Groups 1 and 2 (617 ml vs. 632 ml, p = 0.425). The total hemoglobin and hematocrit changes were not different (1.89 g/dL vs. 1.97 g/dL, p = 0.371 and 5.66% vs. 5.87%, p = 0.391). There was no need for blood transfusion in either group. However, lower thigh swelling was significant in Group 1 (2.15 cm vs. 2.79 cm, p = 0.04). Leg circumferences at 48 h was also lower in Group 1 (42.12 cm vs. 42.77 cm, p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in knee flexion decrease between the two groups (38° vs. 37°, p = 0.425). There were no VTE complications or infections found in either group.

Conclusions

Combined PA + IA TXA administration had similar efficacy in blood loss reduction and blood transfusion when compared to combined IV + IA TXA. The first group displayed less soft tissue swelling. The combination of PA + IA TXA administration can be used as an alternative regimen to avoid IV TXA administration.
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Literature
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Metadata
Title
Comparative effectiveness of combined peri-articular and intra-articular injection versus intravenous and intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial study
Authors
Piya Pinsornsak
Ranet Thaveekitikul
Prem Pinsornsak
Yot Tanariyakul
Publication date
25-04-2024
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Keyword
Tranexamic Acid
Published in
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Print ISSN: 0936-8051
Electronic ISSN: 1434-3916
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00402-024-05337-y