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Published in: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology 2/2024

12-03-2024

The development and testing of olfactory-based neurofeedback for the EEG alpha rhythm

Authors: Alexandra Medvedeva, Ivan Ninenko, Daria F. Kleeva, Aleksey Fedoseev, Artem Bazhenov, Miguel Altamirano Cabrera, Dzmitry Tsetserukou, Mikhail A. Lebedev

Published in: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology | Issue 2/2024

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Abstract

This study presents the development and initial testing of a novel olfactory-based neurofeedback (NFB) system, utilizing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Distinct from traditional visual or auditory NFB, this approach explores olfactory stimuli as the way to deliver NFB. The developed and tested olfactory-based system offers multiple opportunities because olfaction has strong associations with memory and emotional states and therefore can be a sufficiently strong reinforcing stimulus for both classical and instrumental conditioning. The developed system incorporates an EEG apparatus, an automated olfactory display delivering Sniffin’ Sticks, and a Python application for EEG-to-NFB signal conversion. We conducted a preliminary evaluation with fifteen participants split into the olfactory NFB, auditory NFB, and mock-olfactory NFB groups. The NFB represented the occipital alpha rhythm. We observed an increase in alpha power in the true NFB groups and a fatigue-related decrease in the mock NFB group. These initial results demonstrate the feasibility of olfactory NFB and establish a framework for this approach.
Literature
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go back to reference Janssen, T.W., Bink, M., Geladé, K., van Mourik. R., Maras A.Oosterlaan, J. (2016) A randomized controlled trial into the effects of neurofeedback, methylphenidate, and physical activity on EEG power spectra in children with ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 57(5):633-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12517.CrossRefPubMed Janssen, T.W., Bink, M., Geladé, K., van Mourik. R., Maras A.Oosterlaan, J. (2016) A randomized controlled trial into the effects of neurofeedback, methylphenidate, and physical activity on EEG power spectra in children with ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 57(5):633-44. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​jcpp.​12517.CrossRefPubMed
Metadata
Title
The development and testing of olfactory-based neurofeedback for the EEG alpha rhythm
Authors
Alexandra Medvedeva
Ivan Ninenko
Daria F. Kleeva
Aleksey Fedoseev
Artem Bazhenov
Miguel Altamirano Cabrera
Dzmitry Tsetserukou
Mikhail A. Lebedev
Publication date
12-03-2024
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Published in
Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology / Issue 2/2024
Print ISSN: 0097-0549
Electronic ISSN: 1573-899X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11055-024-01580-3

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