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28-05-2024 | Systemic Lupus Erythematosus | Review Article

Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: An Update

Authors: Dilara Unal, Veysel Cam, Hulya Ercan Emreol, Seza Özen

Published in: Pediatric Drugs | Issue 4/2024

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Abstract

Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a potentially serious and life-threatening complication of SLE. The presentation and severity of neuropsychiatric involvement in SLE may show considerable variability. The disease can affect the neural tissue directly or may be associated with vascular involvement, mainly associated with anti-phospholipid (aPL) antibodies. A direct causal link with SLE may sometimes be challenging since there are many confounding factors and the symptoms may be non-specific. Despite its remarkable sensitivity in detecting hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, transverse myelitis and ischemic infarction, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lacks the spatial resolution required to identify microvascular involvement. When standard MRI fails to detect a suspicious lesion, it is advisable to use advanced imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or quantitative MRI, if available. Even with these advanced modalities, the specificity of neuroimaging in NPSLE remains inadequate (60–82% for MRI). Neuropsychiatric syndromes, such as cerebrovascular events, seizures and cognitive impairments appear to be associated with serum aPL antibodies. Some studies have shown that anti-ribosomal P antibodies have a low sensitivity for NPSLE and a limited contribution to the differentiation of different clinical entities. Treatment has two main goals: symptomatic relief and treatment of the disease itself. Commonly used immunosuppressants for NPSLE include cyclophosphamide (CYC), azathioprine (AZA), and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). According to EULAR’s current recommendation, strong immunosuppressants such as CYC and rituximab (RTX) should be preferred. Biologics have also been used in NPSLE. Fingolimod, eculizumab, and JAK inhibitors are potential drugs in the pipeline. Developing targeted therapies will be possible by a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms.
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Metadata
Title
Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: An Update
Authors
Dilara Unal
Veysel Cam
Hulya Ercan Emreol
Seza Özen
Publication date
28-05-2024

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