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25-04-2024 | Stroke | Research

Risk factors of neonatal stroke from different origins: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors: Yankun Song, Shangbin Li, Ling Hao, Yiwei Han, Wenhui Wu, Yuqing Fan, Xiong Gao, Xueying Li, Changjun Ren, Yuan Chen

Published in: European Journal of Pediatrics

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Abstract

Given the persistent ambiguity regarding the etiology of neonatal stroke across diverse origins, our objective was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of both qualitative and quantitative risk factors. An exhaustive search of eight databases was executed to amass all pertinent observational studies concerning risk factors for neonatal stroke from various origins. Subsequent to independent screening, data extraction, and bias assessment by two researchers, a meta-analysis was conducted utilizing RevMan and Stata software. Nineteen studies, encompassing a total of 30 factors, were incorporated into this analysis. Beyond established risk factors, our investigation unveiled gestational diabetes (OR, 5.51; P < 0.00001), a history of infertility (OR, 2.44; P < 0.05), placenta previa (OR, 3.92; P = 0.02), postdates (OR, 2.07; P = 0.01), preterm labor (OR, 2.32; P < 0.00001), premature rupture of membranes (OR, 3.02; P = 0.007), a prolonged second stage of labor (OR, 3.94; P < 0.00001), and chorioamnionitis (OR, 4.35; P < 0.00001) as potential risk factors for neonatal cerebral arterial ischemic stroke. Additionally, postdates (OR, 4.31; P = 0.003), preterm labor (OR, 1.60; P < 0.00001), an abnormal CTG tracing (OR, 9.32; P < 0.0001), cesarean section (OR, 4.29; P = 0.0004), male gender (OR, 1.73; P = 0.02), and vaginal delivery (OR, 1.39; P < 0.00001) were associated with an elevated risk for neonatal hemorrhagic stroke.
Conclusions: This study provides a succinct overview and comparative analysis of maternal, perinatal, and additional risk factors associated with neonatal cerebral artery ischemic stroke and neonatal hemorrhagic stroke, furnishing critical insights for healthcare practitioners involved in the diagnosis and prevention of neonatal stroke. This research also broadens the conceptual framework for future investigations.
What is Known:
• Research indicates that prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal risk factors can elevate the risk of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS). However, the risk factors for neonatal cerebral arterial ischemic stroke remain contentious, and those for neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (NHS) and neonatal cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) are still not well-defined.
What is New:
• This study is the inaugural comprehensive review and meta-analysis encompassing 19 studies that explore maternal, perinatal, and various risk factors linked to neonatal stroke of differing etiologies. Notably, our analysis elucidates eight risk factors associated with NAIS: gestational diabetes mellitus, a history of infertility, placenta previa, postdates, preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, a prolonged second stage of labor, and chorioamnionitis. Furthermore, we identify six risk factors correlated with NHS: postdates, preterm birth, an abnormal CTG, the method of delivery, male gender, and vaginal delivery. Additionally, our systematic review delineates risk factors associated with CVST.
Appendix
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Metadata
Title
Risk factors of neonatal stroke from different origins: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Authors
Yankun Song
Shangbin Li
Ling Hao
Yiwei Han
Wenhui Wu
Yuqing Fan
Xiong Gao
Xueying Li
Changjun Ren
Yuan Chen
Publication date
25-04-2024
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
European Journal of Pediatrics
Print ISSN: 0340-6199
Electronic ISSN: 1432-1076
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-024-05531-5