Third molar displacement (TM) is a rare complication that occurs in both the maxilla and the mandible and can be of complete teeth or root fragments.
The objective of this article was to perform a systematic review of the articles published on third molar displacement during the surgical procedure, analyzing the predisposing factors, the cause, symptomatology, and treatment used to resolve this complication.
Material and Methods
A systematic review was performed. The review included articles on displacement of third molars to different anatomical spaces; articles dealing with displacement of teeth other than third molars, displacement of surgical instruments or displacement of materials were excluded.
Fifty articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The most frequent site to which a third molar is displaced in the maxilla is to the infratemporal fossa while in the mandible it is to the submandibular space. The incidence was higher in women than in men with a 2:1 rate.
When displacement occurs, the risk/benefit of immediate or delayed extraction should be assessed. If there is a risk to vital structures and there is no symptomatology, it can be kept under follow-up. CBCT is the best method for preoperative localization.