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Open Access 17-06-2024 | Respiratory Microbiota | Review

Lifestyle Changes and Industrialization in the Development of Allergic Diseases

Authors: Cevdet Ozdemir, Umut Can Kucuksezer, Ismail Ogulur, Yagiz Pat, Duygu Yazici, Sena Ardicli, Mubeccel Akdis, Kari Nadeau, Cezmi A. Akdis

Published in: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Issue 7/2024

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Abstract

Purpose of Review

Modernization and Westernization in industrialized and developing nations is associated with a substantial increase in chronic noncommunicable diseases. This transformation has far-reaching effects on lifestyles, impacting areas such as economics, politics, social life, and culture, all of which, in turn, have diverse influences on public health. Loss of contact with nature, alternations in the microbiota, processed food consumption, exposure to environmental pollutants including chemicals, increased stress and decreased physical activity jointly result in increases in the frequency of inflammatory disorders including allergies and many autoimmune and neuropsychiatric diseases. This review aims to investigate the relationship between Western lifestyle and inflammatory disorders.

Recent Findings

Several hypotheses have been put forth trying to explain the observed increases in these diseases, such as ‘Hygiene Hypothesis’, ‘Old Friends’, and ‘Biodiversity and Dysbiosis’. The recently introduced ‘Epithelial Barrier Theory’ incorporates these former hypotheses and suggests that toxic substances in cleaning agents, laundry and dishwasher detergents, shampoos, toothpastes, as well as microplastic, packaged food and air pollution damage the epithelium of our skin, lungs and gastrointestinal system. Epithelial barrier disruption leads to decreased biodiversity of the microbiome and the development of opportunistic pathogen colonization, which upon interaction with the immune system, initiates local and systemic inflammation.

Summary

Gaining a deeper comprehension of the interplay between the environment, microbiome and the immune system provides the data to assist with legally regulating the usage of toxic substances, to enable nontoxic alternatives and to mitigate these environmental challenges essential for fostering a harmonious and healthy global environment.
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Metadata
Title
Lifestyle Changes and Industrialization in the Development of Allergic Diseases
Authors
Cevdet Ozdemir
Umut Can Kucuksezer
Ismail Ogulur
Yagiz Pat
Duygu Yazici
Sena Ardicli
Mubeccel Akdis
Kari Nadeau
Cezmi A. Akdis
Publication date
17-06-2024
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports / Issue 7/2024
Print ISSN: 1529-7322
Electronic ISSN: 1534-6315
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11882-024-01149-7

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