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09-05-2024 | Protozoa | Original Article

Assessment of the potential occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in various water sources in Sharqia Governorate, Egypt

Authors: Marwa Omar, Samia E. Etewa, Samar A. M. Mahmoud, Tahani I. Farag

Published in: Journal of Parasitic Diseases | Issue 2/2024

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Abstract

Cryptosporidium species are enteric apicomplexan parasites associated with diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals globally. Waterborne outbreaks resulting from contamination with the infective oocysts are common worldwide. Updated reports on waterborne protozoal infections are needed to identify emerging pathogens and susceptible populations. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the current profile of Cryptosporidium contamination of various water sources in Sharqia Governorate, Northeastern Egypt. For this purpose, eighty samples were collected from five different water types (canal, tap, tank, filtered, and groundwater), distributed in four major cities (El-Hessenia, Fakous, Zagazig, and Belbies) in Sharqia Governorate. All water samples were examined using conventional microscopy, ELISA, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) techniques. Based on microscopic analysis, the Cryptosporidium protozoan was identified in 25% of the tested water samples. The RT-PCR assay has allowed for the quantification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in different types of water. Canal water exhibited the highest Cryptosporidium contamination levels (mean = 85.15 oocysts/L), followed by water tanks (mean = 12.031 oocysts/L). The study also provided a comparative evaluation of ELISA and RT-PCR for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium infection. RT-PCR performed better than ELISA in terms of analytical accuracy (97.50% vs. 86.25%) and specificity (100% vs. 83.33%). However, ELISA showed a higher sensitivity (95.00% vs. 90.00%) for Cryptosporidium recovery. Our findings could serve as a platform for further investigations into the potential risks associated with water contamination in Sharqia Governorate.
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Metadata
Title
Assessment of the potential occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in various water sources in Sharqia Governorate, Egypt
Authors
Marwa Omar
Samia E. Etewa
Samar A. M. Mahmoud
Tahani I. Farag
Publication date
09-05-2024
Publisher
Springer India
Published in
Journal of Parasitic Diseases / Issue 2/2024
Print ISSN: 0971-7196
Electronic ISSN: 0975-0703
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-024-01675-1

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