Skip to main content
Top
Published in:

Open Access 01-12-2022 | Research

Parenting styles and health in mid- and late life: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

Authors: Ruoxi Ding, Ping He

Published in: BMC Geriatrics | Issue 1/2022

Login to get access

Abstract

Backgrounds

The impact of relationships in early childhood may be long-lasting and reaching to mid to late life. Limited studies have investigated the associations between parenting style and different aspects of well-being beyond adolescence. The current study aims to examine the association between parenting styles and multiple dimensions of functioning in mid-and later-life adults.

Methods

We used data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was applied to examine the association between retrospective parenting styles/behaviors in childhood and health outcome.

Results

Compared with authoritative style, authoritarian style predicted worse self-rated health (coefficient = − 0.13, P < 0.001), cognitive function (− 0.23, P < 0.05) and depressive symptom (0.87, P < 0.001). Paternal affection was associated with more health outcome in mid- and late life than maternal affection. Only paternal affection was a significant predictor of mid- and late life health among male adults, while both paternal and maternal affection were strong predictors among female adults. Authoritative style was associated more positive health outcomes in mid- and late life among adults with literate parents than those with illiterate parents.

Conclusion

This study provides evidence for the link between parenting behaviors in early life stage and physical and psychological functioning in mid- to late adulthood. Authoritative style, and the memory of parental affection, particularly from father and educated parents, could have long-lasting positive influence on children’s physical and mental well-being, which further support the life-course perspective on human development.
Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Literature
1.
go back to reference Alvarez EC, Kawachi I, Romani JR. Family social capital and health–a systematic review and redirection. Sociol Health Illn. 2017;39(1):5–29.PubMedCrossRef Alvarez EC, Kawachi I, Romani JR. Family social capital and health–a systematic review and redirection. Sociol Health Illn. 2017;39(1):5–29.PubMedCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Ranson KE, Urichuk LJ. The effect of parent–child attachment relationships on child biopsychosocial outcomes: a review. Early Child Dev Care. 2008;178(2):129–52.CrossRef Ranson KE, Urichuk LJ. The effect of parent–child attachment relationships on child biopsychosocial outcomes: a review. Early Child Dev Care. 2008;178(2):129–52.CrossRef
4.
go back to reference Skinner EA, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ. "Parenting, family stress, developmental cascades, and the differential development of coping." The development of coping. Cham: Springer; 2016. pp. 239-261. Skinner EA, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ. "Parenting, family stress, developmental cascades, and the differential development of coping." The development of coping. Cham: Springer; 2016. pp. 239-261.
5.
go back to reference Bretherton I. The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Dev Psychol. 1992;28(5):759.CrossRef Bretherton I. The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Dev Psychol. 1992;28(5):759.CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Elstad JI. Childhood adversities and health variations among middle-aged men: a retrospective lifecourse study. Eur J Pub Health. 2005;15(1):51–8.CrossRef Elstad JI. Childhood adversities and health variations among middle-aged men: a retrospective lifecourse study. Eur J Pub Health. 2005;15(1):51–8.CrossRef
7.
go back to reference Repetti RL, Taylor SE, Seeman TE. Risky families: family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychol Bull. 2002;128(2):330.PubMedCrossRef Repetti RL, Taylor SE, Seeman TE. Risky families: family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychol Bull. 2002;128(2):330.PubMedCrossRef
8.
go back to reference Baumrind D. The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. J Early Adolesc. 1991;11(1):56–95.CrossRef Baumrind D. The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. J Early Adolesc. 1991;11(1):56–95.CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Coplan RJ, et al. Authoritative and authoritarian mothers’ parenting goals, attributions, and emotions across different childrearing contexts. Parenting. 2002;2(1):1–26.CrossRef Coplan RJ, et al. Authoritative and authoritarian mothers’ parenting goals, attributions, and emotions across different childrearing contexts. Parenting. 2002;2(1):1–26.CrossRef
10.
go back to reference McCoby E. Socialization in the context of the family: parent-child interaction. Handb Child Psychol. 1983;4:1–101. McCoby E. Socialization in the context of the family: parent-child interaction. Handb Child Psychol. 1983;4:1–101.
11.
go back to reference Rothrauff TC, Cooney TM, An JS. Remembered parenting styles and adjustment in middle and late adulthood. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009;64(1):137–46.PubMedCrossRef Rothrauff TC, Cooney TM, An JS. Remembered parenting styles and adjustment in middle and late adulthood. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009;64(1):137–46.PubMedCrossRef
12.
go back to reference Nevarez MD, Morrill MI, Waldinger RJ. Thriving in midlife: the roles of childhood nurturance and adult defense mechanisms. J Res Pers. 2018;74:35–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Nevarez MD, Morrill MI, Waldinger RJ. Thriving in midlife: the roles of childhood nurturance and adult defense mechanisms. J Res Pers. 2018;74:35–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Shaw BA, et al. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health. Psychol Aging. 2004;19(1):4.PubMedCrossRef Shaw BA, et al. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health. Psychol Aging. 2004;19(1):4.PubMedCrossRef
14.
go back to reference Tabak I, Zawadzka D. The importance of positive parenting in predicting adolescent mental health. J Fam Stud. 2017;23(1):1–18.CrossRef Tabak I, Zawadzka D. The importance of positive parenting in predicting adolescent mental health. J Fam Stud. 2017;23(1):1–18.CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Lohaus A, Vierhaus M, Ball J. Parenting styles and health-related behavior in childhood and early adolescence: results of a longitudinal study. J Early Adolesc. 2009;29(4):449–75.CrossRef Lohaus A, Vierhaus M, Ball J. Parenting styles and health-related behavior in childhood and early adolescence: results of a longitudinal study. J Early Adolesc. 2009;29(4):449–75.CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Baltes PB, Lindenberger U, Staudinger UM. Life-span theory in developmental psychology. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development. Hoboken: Wiley; 1998. Baltes PB, Lindenberger U, Staudinger UM. Life-span theory in developmental psychology. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development. Hoboken: Wiley; 1998.
17.
go back to reference Clearfield MW, Nelson NM. Sex differences in mothers’ speech and play behavior with 6-, 9-, and 14-month-old infants. Sex Roles. 2006;54(1):127–37.CrossRef Clearfield MW, Nelson NM. Sex differences in mothers’ speech and play behavior with 6-, 9-, and 14-month-old infants. Sex Roles. 2006;54(1):127–37.CrossRef
18.
19.
go back to reference Pinderhughes EE, et al. Discipline responses: influences of parents' socioeconomic status, ethnicity, beliefs about parenting, stress, and cognitive-emotional processes. J Fam Psychol. 2000;14(3):380.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Pinderhughes EE, et al. Discipline responses: influences of parents' socioeconomic status, ethnicity, beliefs about parenting, stress, and cognitive-emotional processes. J Fam Psychol. 2000;14(3):380.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Zhao Y, et al. Cohort profile: the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS). Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(1):61–8.PubMedCrossRef Zhao Y, et al. Cohort profile: the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS). Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(1):61–8.PubMedCrossRef
21.
go back to reference Zhang L, et al. Association between diabetes and cognitive function among people over 45 years old in China: a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(7):1294.PubMedCentralCrossRef Zhang L, et al. Association between diabetes and cognitive function among people over 45 years old in China: a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(7):1294.PubMedCentralCrossRef
22.
go back to reference Chen H, Mui AC. Factorial validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale short form in older population in China. Int Psychogeriatr. 2014;26(1):49–57.PubMedCrossRef Chen H, Mui AC. Factorial validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale short form in older population in China. Int Psychogeriatr. 2014;26(1):49–57.PubMedCrossRef
23.
go back to reference Chopik WJ, Edelstein RS. Retrospective memories of parental care and health from mid-to late life. Health Psychol. 2019;38(1):84.PubMedCrossRef Chopik WJ, Edelstein RS. Retrospective memories of parental care and health from mid-to late life. Health Psychol. 2019;38(1):84.PubMedCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Steinberg L, et al. Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Dev. 1994;65(3):754–70.PubMedCrossRef Steinberg L, et al. Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Dev. 1994;65(3):754–70.PubMedCrossRef
25.
go back to reference Davis-Kean PE. The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: the indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. J Fam Psychol. 2005;19(2):294.PubMedCrossRef Davis-Kean PE. The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: the indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. J Fam Psychol. 2005;19(2):294.PubMedCrossRef
26.
go back to reference Lei X, et al. Health outcomes and socio-economic status among the mid-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the CHARLS national baseline data. J Econ Ageing. 2014;3:29–43.CrossRef Lei X, et al. Health outcomes and socio-economic status among the mid-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the CHARLS national baseline data. J Econ Ageing. 2014;3:29–43.CrossRef
27.
go back to reference Strauss J, et al. Health outcomes and socio-economic status among the elderly in China: evidence from the CHARLS pilot. J Popul Ageing. 2010;3(3):111–42.PubMedCrossRef Strauss J, et al. Health outcomes and socio-economic status among the elderly in China: evidence from the CHARLS pilot. J Popul Ageing. 2010;3(3):111–42.PubMedCrossRef
28.
go back to reference Huang W, Zhou Y. Effects of education on cognition at older ages: evidence from China’s great famine. Soc Sci Med. 2013;98:54–62.PubMedCrossRef Huang W, Zhou Y. Effects of education on cognition at older ages: evidence from China’s great famine. Soc Sci Med. 2013;98:54–62.PubMedCrossRef
29.
go back to reference Lei X, et al. Depressive symptoms and SES among the mid-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study national baseline. Soc Sci Med. 2014;120:224–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lei X, et al. Depressive symptoms and SES among the mid-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study national baseline. Soc Sci Med. 2014;120:224–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
30.
go back to reference Zhang K, Zhang W. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Later Life: Exploring Rural/Urban and Gender Differences Using CHARLS[J]. J Appl Gerontol. 2022;41(5):1454-64. Zhang K, Zhang W. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Later Life: Exploring Rural/Urban and Gender Differences Using CHARLS[J]. J Appl Gerontol. 2022;41(5):1454-64.
31.
go back to reference Cui H, Smith JP, Zhao Y. Early-life deprivation and health outcomes in adulthood: evidence from childhood hunger episodes of middle-aged and elderly Chinese. J Dev Econ. 2020;143:102417.PubMedCrossRef Cui H, Smith JP, Zhao Y. Early-life deprivation and health outcomes in adulthood: evidence from childhood hunger episodes of middle-aged and elderly Chinese. J Dev Econ. 2020;143:102417.PubMedCrossRef
32.
go back to reference Ding R, He P. Associations between childhood adversities and late-life cognitive function: potential mechanisms. Soc Sci Med. 2021;291:114478.PubMedCrossRef Ding R, He P. Associations between childhood adversities and late-life cognitive function: potential mechanisms. Soc Sci Med. 2021;291:114478.PubMedCrossRef
33.
go back to reference Ghisletta P, Spini D. An introduction to generalized estimating equations and an application to assess selectivity effects in a longitudinal study on very old individuals. J Educ Behav Stat. 2004;29(4):421–37.CrossRef Ghisletta P, Spini D. An introduction to generalized estimating equations and an application to assess selectivity effects in a longitudinal study on very old individuals. J Educ Behav Stat. 2004;29(4):421–37.CrossRef
34.
go back to reference Gerlsma C, Emmelkamp PM, Arrindell WA. Anxiety, depression, and perception of early parenting: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 1990;10(3):251–77.CrossRef Gerlsma C, Emmelkamp PM, Arrindell WA. Anxiety, depression, and perception of early parenting: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 1990;10(3):251–77.CrossRef
35.
go back to reference Steele EH, McKinney C. Emerging adult psychological problems and parenting style: moderation by parent-child relationship quality. Personal Individ Differ. 2019;146:201–8.CrossRef Steele EH, McKinney C. Emerging adult psychological problems and parenting style: moderation by parent-child relationship quality. Personal Individ Differ. 2019;146:201–8.CrossRef
36.
go back to reference Hill PL, Allemand M, Roberts BW. Examining the pathways between gratitude and self-rated physical health across adulthood. Personal Individ Differ. 2013;54(1):92–6.CrossRef Hill PL, Allemand M, Roberts BW. Examining the pathways between gratitude and self-rated physical health across adulthood. Personal Individ Differ. 2013;54(1):92–6.CrossRef
37.
go back to reference Sin NL, Moskowitz JT, Whooley MA. Positive affect and health behaviors across five years in patients with coronary heart disease: the heart and soul study. Psychosom Med. 2015;77(9):1058.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Sin NL, Moskowitz JT, Whooley MA. Positive affect and health behaviors across five years in patients with coronary heart disease: the heart and soul study. Psychosom Med. 2015;77(9):1058.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
38.
go back to reference Sakado K, et al. The relationship between personality, dysfunctional parenting in childhood, and lifetime depression in a sample of employed Japanese adults. J Affect Disord. 2000;60(1):47–51.PubMedCrossRef Sakado K, et al. The relationship between personality, dysfunctional parenting in childhood, and lifetime depression in a sample of employed Japanese adults. J Affect Disord. 2000;60(1):47–51.PubMedCrossRef
39.
go back to reference Lai AC, Zhang Z-X, Wang W-Z. Maternal child-rearing practices in Hong Kong and Beijing Chinese families: a comparative study. Int J Psychol. 2000;35(1):60–6.CrossRef Lai AC, Zhang Z-X, Wang W-Z. Maternal child-rearing practices in Hong Kong and Beijing Chinese families: a comparative study. Int J Psychol. 2000;35(1):60–6.CrossRef
40.
go back to reference Pan Y, et al. Different effects of paternal and maternal attachment on psychological health among Chinese secondary school students. J Child Fam Stud. 2016;25(10):2998–3008.CrossRef Pan Y, et al. Different effects of paternal and maternal attachment on psychological health among Chinese secondary school students. J Child Fam Stud. 2016;25(10):2998–3008.CrossRef
41.
go back to reference Grossmann, K., et al.. A wider view of attachment and exploration: the influence of mothers and fathers on the development of psychological security from infancy to young adulthood. 2008. Grossmann, K., et al.. A wider view of attachment and exploration: the influence of mothers and fathers on the development of psychological security from infancy to young adulthood. 2008.
42.
go back to reference Laurence S. We know some things: adolescent-parent relationships in retrospect and Prospect. J Res Adolesc. 2001;11:1–19.CrossRef Laurence S. We know some things: adolescent-parent relationships in retrospect and Prospect. J Res Adolesc. 2001;11:1–19.CrossRef
43.
go back to reference Rice KG, Cunningham TJ, Young MB. Attachment to parents, social competence, and emotional well-being: a comparison of black and white late adolescents. J Couns Psychol. 1997;44(1):89.CrossRef Rice KG, Cunningham TJ, Young MB. Attachment to parents, social competence, and emotional well-being: a comparison of black and white late adolescents. J Couns Psychol. 1997;44(1):89.CrossRef
44.
go back to reference Lyons MT, Brewer G, Bethell EJ. Sex-specific effect of recalled parenting on affective and cognitive empathy in adulthood. Curr Psychol. 2017;36(2):236–41.PubMedCrossRef Lyons MT, Brewer G, Bethell EJ. Sex-specific effect of recalled parenting on affective and cognitive empathy in adulthood. Curr Psychol. 2017;36(2):236–41.PubMedCrossRef
45.
go back to reference Keshavarz S, Baharudin R. Perceived parenting style of fathers and adolescents’ locus of control in a collectivist culture of Malaysia: the moderating role of fathers’ education. J Genet Psychol. 2013;174(3):253–70.PubMedCrossRef Keshavarz S, Baharudin R. Perceived parenting style of fathers and adolescents’ locus of control in a collectivist culture of Malaysia: the moderating role of fathers’ education. J Genet Psychol. 2013;174(3):253–70.PubMedCrossRef
46.
go back to reference Ackerman BP, et al. Family instability and the problem behaviors of children from economically disadvantaged families. Dev Psychol. 1999;35(1):258.PubMedCrossRef Ackerman BP, et al. Family instability and the problem behaviors of children from economically disadvantaged families. Dev Psychol. 1999;35(1):258.PubMedCrossRef
47.
go back to reference Henry B, et al. On the" remembrance of things past": a longitudinal evaluation of the retrospective method. Psychol Assess. 1994;6(2):92.CrossRef Henry B, et al. On the" remembrance of things past": a longitudinal evaluation of the retrospective method. Psychol Assess. 1994;6(2):92.CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Parenting styles and health in mid- and late life: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study
Authors
Ruoxi Ding
Ping He
Publication date
01-12-2022
Publisher
BioMed Central
Published in
BMC Geriatrics / Issue 1/2022
Electronic ISSN: 1471-2318
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-022-03157-6

Other articles of this Issue 1/2022

BMC Geriatrics 1/2022 Go to the issue
Obesity Clinical Trial Summary

At a glance: The STEP trials

A round-up of the STEP phase 3 clinical trials evaluating semaglutide for weight loss in people with overweight or obesity.

Developed by: Springer Medicine
Webinar | 06-02-2024 | 20:00 (CET)

Mastering chronic pancreatitis pain: A multidisciplinary approach and practical solutions

Severe pain is the most common symptom of chronic pancreatitis. In this webinar, experts share the latest insights in pain management for chronic pancreatitis patients. Experts from a range of disciplines discuss pertinent cases and provide practical suggestions for use within clinical practice.

Sponsored by: Viatris

Developed by: Springer Healthcare
Live Webinar | 01-10-2024 | 12:30 (CEST)

Recent advances in the use of CAR T-cell therapies in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma

Live: Tuesday 1st October 2024, 12:30-14:00 (CEST)

In this live webinar, Professor Martin Dreyling and an esteemed, international panel of CAR-T experts will discuss the very latest data on the safety, efficacy and clinical impact of CAR T-cell therapies in the treatment of r/r DLBCL and r/r FL, as presented at ASH 2023, EU CAR-T 2024, and EHA 2024. 

Please note, this webinar is not intended for healthcare professionals based in the US and UK.

Sponsored by: Novartis Pharma AG

Chaired by: Prof. Martin Dreyling
Developed by: Springer Healthcare