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08-07-2024 | Pancreatic Cancer | Review

The Current Landscape of Clinical Trials for Immunotherapy in Pancreatic Cancer: A State-of-the-Art Review

Authors: Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Muhammad Danyal Farooq, Musfira Khalid, Khadija Cheema, Faheem Javad, Taleah Khan, Zainab Pervaiz, Muzna Sarfraz, Ali Jaan, Subhan Sadiq, Junaid Anwar

Published in: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer

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Abstract

Background

Pancreatic cancer remains a lethal malignancy with a 5-year survival rate below 6% and about 500,000 deaths annually worldwide. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the most prevalent form, is commonly associated with diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and smoking, mainly affecting individuals aged 60 to 80 years. This systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Methods

A systematic search was conducted to identify clinical trials (Phases I–III) assessing immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer in PubMed/Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science, adhering to PRISMA Statement 2020 guidelines. The final search was completed on May 25, 2024. Ongoing trials were sourced from ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization’s International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Keywords such as "pancreatic," "immunotherapy," "cancer," and "clinical trial" were used across databases. Gray literature was excluded.

Results

Phase I trials, involving 337 patients, reported a median overall survival (OS) of 13.6 months (IQR: 5–62.5 months) and a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 5.1 months (IQR: 1.9–11.7 months). Phase II/III trials pooled in a total of 1463 participants had a median OS of 12.2 months (IQR: 2.5–35.55 months) and a median PFS of 8.8 months (IQR: 1.4–33.51 months).

Conclusions

Immunotherapy shows potential for extending survival among pancreatic cancer patients, though results vary. The immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment and diverse patient responses underline the need for further research to optimize these therapeutic strategies.
Appendix
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Metadata
Title
The Current Landscape of Clinical Trials for Immunotherapy in Pancreatic Cancer: A State-of-the-Art Review
Authors
Zouina Sarfraz
Azza Sarfraz
Muhammad Danyal Farooq
Musfira Khalid
Khadija Cheema
Faheem Javad
Taleah Khan
Zainab Pervaiz
Muzna Sarfraz
Ali Jaan
Subhan Sadiq
Junaid Anwar
Publication date
08-07-2024
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Print ISSN: 1941-6628
Electronic ISSN: 1941-6636
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12029-024-01078-8
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