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Open Access 26-07-2023 | Original Contribution

Outcomes of a state-wide salt reduction initiative in adults living in Victoria, Australia

Authors: Kristy A. Bolton, Joseph Alvin Santos, Emalie Rosewarne, Kathy Trieu, Jenny Reimers, Caryl Nowson, Bruce Neal, Jacqui Webster, Mark Woodward, Elizabeth Dunford, Sian Armstrong, Bruce Bolam, Carley Grimes

Published in: European Journal of Nutrition | Issue 7/2023

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Abstract

Purpose

To assess any effects of a state-wide sodium reduction intervention on sodium intake, sources of dietary sodium and discretionary salt use at a population level.

Methods

Data (24-h urinary sodium excretion, self-report survey, a 24-h dietary recall) were collected cross-sectionally at baseline (2016/2017) and follow-up (2020) from adults in Victoria, Australia. Intervention activities included consumer awareness advertising campaign, public debate generation via mass media, strengthening existing policy initiatives and supporting food innovation with industry.

Results

There were 339 participants at baseline and 211 at follow-up, with 144 and 90 of participants completing a 24-h dietary recall, respectively. There was no difference in adjusted 24-h urinary sodium excretion between baseline and follow-up (134 vs 131 mmol/24 h; p = 0.260). There were no differences in the percentage of participants adding salt during cooking (63% vs 68%; p = 0.244), adding salt at the table (34% vs 37%; p = 0.400) or regularly taking action to control salt/sodium intake (22% vs 21%; p = 0.793). There were large differences in the quantity of dietary sodium sourced from retail stores (57% vs 77%, p < 0.001), and less sodium was sourced from foods at fresh food markets (13% vs 2%; p ≤ 0.001) at follow-up. No large differences were apparent for foods with different levels of processing or for food groups.

Conclusion

There was no clear population-level effect of the 4-year multi-component Victorian Salt Reduction Intervention on sodium intake with Victorian adults continuing to consume sodium above recommended levels. The findings indicate that more intensive and sustained efforts aiming at the retail and food industry with national level support are likely to be required to achieve a measurable improvement in sodium intake at a state level.
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Metadata
Title
Outcomes of a state-wide salt reduction initiative in adults living in Victoria, Australia
Authors
Kristy A. Bolton
Joseph Alvin Santos
Emalie Rosewarne
Kathy Trieu
Jenny Reimers
Caryl Nowson
Bruce Neal
Jacqui Webster
Mark Woodward
Elizabeth Dunford
Sian Armstrong
Bruce Bolam
Carley Grimes
Publication date
26-07-2023
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
European Journal of Nutrition / Issue 7/2023
Print ISSN: 1436-6207
Electronic ISSN: 1436-6215
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-023-03210-z

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