The need to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) following blunt solid organ injury must be balanced against the concern for exacerbation of hemorrhage. The optimal timing for initiation of VTE chemoprophylaxis is not known. The objective was to determine the safety and efficacy of early (≤ 48 h) VTE chemoprophylaxis initiation following blunt solid organ injury.
An electronic search was performed of medical libraries for English language studies on timing of VTE chemoprophylaxis initiation following blunt solid organ injury published from inception to April 2020. Included studies compared early (≤ 48 h) versus late (> 48 h) initiation of VTE chemoprophylaxis in adults with blunt splenic, liver, and/or kidney injury. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Odds ratios were utilized to quantify differences in failure of nonoperative management, need for blood transfusion and rates of VTE.
The search identified 2,111 studies. Of these, ten studies comprising 14,675 patients were included. All studies were non-randomized and only one was prospective. The overall odds of failure of nonoperative management were no different between early and late groups, OR 1.09 (95%CI 0.92–1.29). Similarly, there was no difference in the need for blood transfusion either during overall hospital stay, OR 0.91 (95%CI 0.70–1.18), or post prophylaxis initiation, OR 1.23 (95%CI 0.55–2.73). There were significantly lower odds of VTE when patients received early VTE chemoprophylaxis, OR 0.51 (95%CI 0.33–0.81).
Patients undergoing nonoperative management for blunt solid organ injury can be safely and effectively prescribed early VTE chemoprophylaxis. This results in significantly lower VTE rates without demonstrable harm.