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26-07-2023 | Neurogenic Bladder | Original Article

A grading system for evaluation of bladder trabeculation

Authors: Xiao Wang, Hong-song Chen, Chong Wang, Xing-guo Luo, Yan-xi Wang, Zi-han Ye, Xing Liu, Guang-hui Wei

Published in: World Journal of Urology | Issue 9/2023

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Abstract

Purpose

To establish a parameter-based grading system for evaluating bladder trabeculation (BT).

Materials and methods

A retrospective analysis was conducted on children diagnosed with posterior urethral valve (PUV) or neurogenic bladder (NB) who underwent voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), urodynamic testing, and urological ultrasonography between January 2016 and October 2022. Cases involving urologic surgery, secondary bladder pathology, and an interval of more than 12 months between examinations were excluded. A parameter named Bladder Dispersion (BD) was calculated through fluoroscopic images, and the grading system was developed as follows: BD < 40 (Grade 0), 40 ≤ BD < 60 (Grade 1), 60 ≤ BD < 90 (Grade 2), BD ≥ 90 (Grade 3). Grades 0–1 were classified as low-risk group, while grades 2–3 were classified as high-risk group. Analysis of variance, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Chi-square test were performed to compare urodynamic results and complications across different grades and groups.

Results

A total of 74 patients were eligible to participate, which included 46 boys (62.2%) and 28 girls (37.8%), the mean age was 75.18 ± 48.39 months. Among them, 11 (14.9%) were PUV, 50 (67.6%) were NB, and 13 (17.5%) were PUV and NB. Significant differences were observed in maximum detrusor pressure, post-void residual urine ratio, and compliance among grades 0–3. Severe hydronephrosis and histories of urinary tract infection were more prevalent in the high-risk group.

Conclusion

A reliable grading system with objective standards was proposed which could aid in the assessment of BT severity.
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Metadata
Title
A grading system for evaluation of bladder trabeculation
Authors
Xiao Wang
Hong-song Chen
Chong Wang
Xing-guo Luo
Yan-xi Wang
Zi-han Ye
Xing Liu
Guang-hui Wei
Publication date
26-07-2023
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
World Journal of Urology / Issue 9/2023
Print ISSN: 0724-4983
Electronic ISSN: 1433-8726
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-023-04527-4

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