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09-05-2024 | Myasthenia Gravis | Review Article

FcRn Inhibitor Therapies in Neurologic Diseases

Authors: Nouf Alfaidi, Salama Karmastaji, Alexandria Matic, Vera Bril

Published in: CNS Drugs | Issue 6/2024

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Abstract

In the last decade, the landscape of treating autoimmune diseases has evolved with the emergence and approval of novel targeted therapies. Several new biological agents offer selective and target-specific immunotherapy and therefore fewer side effects, such as neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-targeting therapy. Neonatal Fc receptor-targeted therapies are engineered to selectively target FcRn through various methods, such as Fc fragments or monoclonal anti-FcRn antibodies. These approaches enhance the breakdown of autoantibodies by blocking the immunoglobulin G recycling pathway. This mechanism reduces overall plasma immunoglobulin levels, including the levels of pathogenic autoantibodies, without affecting the other immunoglobulin class immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin E, immunoglobulin M, and immunoglobulin D levels. Drugs that inhibit FcRn include efgartigimod, rozanolixizumab, batoclimab, and nipocalimab. These medications can be administered either intravenously or subcutaneously. Numerous clinical trials are currently underway to investigate their effectiveness, safety, and tolerability in various neurological conditions, including myasthenia gravis and other neurological disorders such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myositis, neuromyelitis optica, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease. Positive results from clinical trials of efgartigimod and rozanolixizumab led to their approval for the treatment of generalized myasthenia gravis. Additional clinical trials are still ongoing. Neonatal Fc receptor inhibitor agents seem to be well tolerated. Reported adverse events include headache (most commonly observed with efgartigimod and rozanolixizumab), upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, diarrhea, pyrexia, and nausea. Additionally, some of these agents may cause transient hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia notably reported with batoclimab and nipocalimab. In this review, we discuss the available clinical data for FcRN inhibitor agents in treating different neurological autoimmune diseases.
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Metadata
Title
FcRn Inhibitor Therapies in Neurologic Diseases
Authors
Nouf Alfaidi
Salama Karmastaji
Alexandria Matic
Vera Bril
Publication date
09-05-2024
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Published in
CNS Drugs / Issue 6/2024
Print ISSN: 1172-7047
Electronic ISSN: 1179-1934
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40263-024-01090-3

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