Skip to main content
Top
Published in: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 3/2023

18-09-2021 | Mood Disorders | Original Contribution

Sustained social withdrawal behavior and ‘difficult’ temperament among infants, in relation to maternal affectivity in a low-income area of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Authors: Daniel Okitundu-Luwa, Brigitte Imbula Essam, Marie-Thérèse Sombo Ayanne, Ally Ndjukendi Omba, Franck Otete Djamba, Tharcisse Kayembe Kalula, Timothée Kamanga Mbuyi, Antoine Guedeney, Espérance Kashala-Abotnes

Published in: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry | Issue 3/2023

Login to get access

Abstract

Little is known about the relationship between maternal affectivity, social withdrawal and temperament in infants in low-income countries. The goal of the study was to assess the prevalence of social withdrawal behavior in infants aged 8 ± 2.3 months and to explore associations between maternal affectivity during pregnancy and postpartum, infant social withdrawal (as a sign of stress) and ‘difficult’ temperament as assessed by the mothers. 458 mother–infant dyads were recruited in the city’s public mother and child health-care centers. The eight items of the Alarm Distress Baby scale (8-ADBB) and the five-item M (modified) ADBB (M-ADBB) were used to assess sustained withdrawal behavior (ISSWB). The Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scales were used to assess maternal affectivity and mental well-being. A specially designed questionnaire was used to identify stressful events faced by the mother during pregnancy. The ELDEQ-QCB was used to assess the degree of difficulty in managing the baby. Using the M-ADBB, we found a striking figure of 69.2% for ISSWB with 8-ABB (range 0–29) and 72.7% with the M-ADBB (range 0–10). ISSWB was linked to negative maternal affectivity and to high incidence of stressful events for the mothers, and to the child being viewed as ‘difficult’ by the mother. Positive prenatal affectivity was a protective factor of ISSWB (OR 0.46). Results are compared with previous studies in Africa. Early screening for ISSWB and identification of factors affecting maternal mental well-being could help in early intervention and increase the chances of better child development.
Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Literature
1.
go back to reference Okitundu LE-A, Kamanga MB, Kayembe K (2009) Mother–baby interactions, infant neurologic and psychosocial development: exploratory study Congo rural area. Revue de la Faculté de Psychologie et Sciences de l’Education 1(2):201–224 Okitundu LE-A, Kamanga MB, Kayembe K (2009) Mother–baby interactions, infant neurologic and psychosocial development: exploratory study Congo rural area. Revue de la Faculté de Psychologie et Sciences de l’Education 1(2):201–224
2.
go back to reference Okitundu LE-A, Imbula Essam BR, Masengu Kayembe D et al (2010) Mother–baby interaction and maternal affectivity in child neuropsychiatry in Kinshasa. Psychopathologie Africaine 35(1):83–103 Okitundu LE-A, Imbula Essam BR, Masengu Kayembe D et al (2010) Mother–baby interaction and maternal affectivity in child neuropsychiatry in Kinshasa. Psychopathologie Africaine 35(1):83–103
4.
go back to reference Houyoux J (1973) Households budgets, nutrition and lifestyle in Kinshasa. Presses Universitaires du Zaïre, Kinshasa Houyoux J (1973) Households budgets, nutrition and lifestyle in Kinshasa. Presses Universitaires du Zaïre, Kinshasa
5.
go back to reference Bass Judith K, Ryder Robert W, Marie-Christine L et al (2008) A Post-partum depression in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: validation of a concept using a mixed-methods cross-cultural approach. Tropical Med Int Health 13(12):1534–1542CrossRef Bass Judith K, Ryder Robert W, Marie-Christine L et al (2008) A Post-partum depression in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: validation of a concept using a mixed-methods cross-cultural approach. Tropical Med Int Health 13(12):1534–1542CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Imbula Essam BR, Okitundu LE-A, Mampunza Ma-Miezi S (2013) Postnatal maternal depression prevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa. Médecine et Santé Tropicales 22(4):379–384 Imbula Essam BR, Okitundu LE-A, Mampunza Ma-Miezi S (2013) Postnatal maternal depression prevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa. Médecine et Santé Tropicales 22(4):379–384
7.
go back to reference Tomlinson M, Swartz L, Cooper P et al (2004) Social factors and postpartum depression in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. S Afr J Psychol 34(3):409–420CrossRef Tomlinson M, Swartz L, Cooper P et al (2004) Social factors and postpartum depression in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. S Afr J Psychol 34(3):409–420CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Brazelton TB, Koslowski B, Main M (1974) Origins of reciprocity. In: Lewis M, Rosenblum L (eds) Mother–infant interaction. Wiley, New York, pp 57–70 Brazelton TB, Koslowski B, Main M (1974) Origins of reciprocity. In: Lewis M, Rosenblum L (eds) Mother–infant interaction. Wiley, New York, pp 57–70
10.
go back to reference Feldman R (2007) Parent–infant synchrony and the construction of shared timing; physiological precursors, developmental outcomes, and risk conditions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48(3/4):329–354CrossRefPubMed Feldman R (2007) Parent–infant synchrony and the construction of shared timing; physiological precursors, developmental outcomes, and risk conditions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48(3/4):329–354CrossRefPubMed
11.
go back to reference Clore GL, Schnall S (2005) The influence of affect on attitude. In: Albarracín D, Johnson BT, Zanna MP (eds) Handbook of attitudes. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 437–489 Clore GL, Schnall S (2005) The influence of affect on attitude. In: Albarracín D, Johnson BT, Zanna MP (eds) Handbook of attitudes. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 437–489
12.
go back to reference Weiss HM, Cropanzano R (1996) Affective events theory: a theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Res Organ Behav 18:1–74 Weiss HM, Cropanzano R (1996) Affective events theory: a theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Res Organ Behav 18:1–74
13.
go back to reference Vaughn BE, Bradley CF, Joffe LS et al (1987) Maternal characteristics measured prenatally are predictive of ratings of temperamental “difficulty” on the Carey infant temperament questionnaire. Dev Psychol 23(1):152–161CrossRef Vaughn BE, Bradley CF, Joffe LS et al (1987) Maternal characteristics measured prenatally are predictive of ratings of temperamental “difficulty” on the Carey infant temperament questionnaire. Dev Psychol 23(1):152–161CrossRef
14.
go back to reference Fox NA (2004) Temperament and early experience form social behavior. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1038:171–178CrossRefPubMed Fox NA (2004) Temperament and early experience form social behavior. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1038:171–178CrossRefPubMed
15.
go back to reference Buitelaar JK, Huizink AC, Mulder EJ et al (2003) Prenatal stress and cognitive development and temperament in infants. Neurobiol Aging 24(1):53–60CrossRef Buitelaar JK, Huizink AC, Mulder EJ et al (2003) Prenatal stress and cognitive development and temperament in infants. Neurobiol Aging 24(1):53–60CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Cao-Lei L, Massart R, Suderman MJ et al (2014) DNA methylation signatures triggered by prenatal maternal stress exposure to a natural disaster: project ice storm. PLoS ONE 9(9):e107653CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Cao-Lei L, Massart R, Suderman MJ et al (2014) DNA methylation signatures triggered by prenatal maternal stress exposure to a natural disaster: project ice storm. PLoS ONE 9(9):e107653CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
17.
go back to reference Graignic-Philippe R, Tordjman S (2009) Effects of stress during pregnancy on child and child development. Pediatric Arch 16(10):1355–1363CrossRef Graignic-Philippe R, Tordjman S (2009) Effects of stress during pregnancy on child and child development. Pediatric Arch 16(10):1355–1363CrossRef
18.
go back to reference Britton JR (2011) Infant temperament and maternal anxiety and depressed mood in the early postpartum period. Women Health 51(1):55–71CrossRefPubMed Britton JR (2011) Infant temperament and maternal anxiety and depressed mood in the early postpartum period. Women Health 51(1):55–71CrossRefPubMed
19.
go back to reference Prenoveau JM, Craske MG, West V et al (2017) Maternal postnatal depression and anxiety and their association with child emotional negativity and behavior problems at two years. Dev Psychol 53(1):50–62 (0012-1649)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Prenoveau JM, Craske MG, West V et al (2017) Maternal postnatal depression and anxiety and their association with child emotional negativity and behavior problems at two years. Dev Psychol 53(1):50–62 (0012-1649)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
24.
go back to reference Durandt NE (2014) Outcome of a home-visiting intervention to improve social withdrawal assessed with the m-ADBB in six-month old infants in Khayelitsha, Cape Town: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (Psychology) in the Faculty of Science at Stellenbosch University. Stellenbosch University. https://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/96009 Durandt NE (2014) Outcome of a home-visiting intervention to improve social withdrawal assessed with the m-ADBB in six-month old infants in Khayelitsha, Cape Town: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (Psychology) in the Faculty of Science at Stellenbosch University. Stellenbosch University. https://​scholar.​sun.​ac.​za/​handle/​10019.​1/​96009
36.
go back to reference Matthey S, Crncec R, Hales A et al (2013) A description of the modified alarm distress baby scale (m-ADBB): an instrument to assess for infant social withdrawal in infants. Infant Ment Health J 34(6):602–609CrossRef Matthey S, Crncec R, Hales A et al (2013) A description of the modified alarm distress baby scale (m-ADBB): an instrument to assess for infant social withdrawal in infants. Infant Ment Health J 34(6):602–609CrossRef
37.
go back to reference Guedeney A, Wendland J, Dugravier R et al (2013) Impact of a randomized home-visiting trial on infant social withdrawal in the Capdep prevention study. Infant Ment Health J 34(6):594–601CrossRef Guedeney A, Wendland J, Dugravier R et al (2013) Impact of a randomized home-visiting trial on infant social withdrawal in the Capdep prevention study. Infant Ment Health J 34(6):594–601CrossRef
38.
go back to reference Institut de la statistique du Québec (1998–2002) L'Étude longitudinale du développement des enfants du Québec. ÉLDEQ, Québec, Canada Institut de la statistique du Québec (1998–2002) L'Étude longitudinale du développement des enfants du Québec. ÉLDEQ, Québec, Canada
40.
go back to reference Braarud HC, Slinning K, Moe V et al (2013) Relation between social withdrawal symptoms in full-term and premature infants and depressive symptoms in mothers: a longitudinal study. Infant Ment Health J 34(6):532–541CrossRef Braarud HC, Slinning K, Moe V et al (2013) Relation between social withdrawal symptoms in full-term and premature infants and depressive symptoms in mothers: a longitudinal study. Infant Ment Health J 34(6):532–541CrossRef
41.
go back to reference Mantymaa M, Puura K, Luoma I et al (2008) Infants’ social withdrawal and parents’ mental health. Infant Behav Dev 31(4):606–613CrossRefPubMed Mantymaa M, Puura K, Luoma I et al (2008) Infants’ social withdrawal and parents’ mental health. Infant Behav Dev 31(4):606–613CrossRefPubMed
42.
go back to reference Earls MF, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health American Academy of Pediatrics (2010) Incorporating recognition and management of perinatal and postpartum depression into pediatric practice. Pediatrics 126:1032–1039CrossRefPubMed Earls MF, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health American Academy of Pediatrics (2010) Incorporating recognition and management of perinatal and postpartum depression into pediatric practice. Pediatrics 126:1032–1039CrossRefPubMed
43.
go back to reference Bush NR, Jones-Mason K, Coccia M et al (2017) Effects of pre-and postnatal maternal stress on infant temperament and autonomic nervous system reactivity and regulation in a diverse, low-income population. Dev Psychopathol 29:1553–2157CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Bush NR, Jones-Mason K, Coccia M et al (2017) Effects of pre-and postnatal maternal stress on infant temperament and autonomic nervous system reactivity and regulation in a diverse, low-income population. Dev Psychopathol 29:1553–2157CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
46.
go back to reference Favez N, Berger SP (2011) Mother–toddler attachment in a pediatric setting: presentation and validation of the Pediatric Attachment Style Indicator (PASI). Eur J Dev Psychol 8(5):587–607CrossRef Favez N, Berger SP (2011) Mother–toddler attachment in a pediatric setting: presentation and validation of the Pediatric Attachment Style Indicator (PASI). Eur J Dev Psychol 8(5):587–607CrossRef
47.
go back to reference Barretta KJ, Thompsona AL, Bentleyb ME (2016) The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles. Appetite 103:396–402CrossRef Barretta KJ, Thompsona AL, Bentleyb ME (2016) The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles. Appetite 103:396–402CrossRef
48.
go back to reference Re JM, Dean S, Guedeney A et al (2018) Maternal distress and infant social withdrawal (ADBB) following infant cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. J Pediatric Congenital Heart Surg 9(6):624–637CrossRef Re JM, Dean S, Guedeney A et al (2018) Maternal distress and infant social withdrawal (ADBB) following infant cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. J Pediatric Congenital Heart Surg 9(6):624–637CrossRef
49.
go back to reference Alvarez SL, Meltzer-Brody S, Marcia Mande M et al (2015) Maternal depression and early intervention: a call for an integration of services. Infants Young Child 28(1):72–87CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Alvarez SL, Meltzer-Brody S, Marcia Mande M et al (2015) Maternal depression and early intervention: a call for an integration of services. Infants Young Child 28(1):72–87CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
50.
go back to reference World Health Organization (2004) The importance of caregiver–child interactions for the survival and healthy development of young children: a review. World Health Organization, Geneva World Health Organization (2004) The importance of caregiver–child interactions for the survival and healthy development of young children: a review. World Health Organization, Geneva
51.
go back to reference Davin EP, Narayan AI (2020) Pregnancy as a period of risk, adaptation and resilience for mothers and infants. Dev Psychopathol 32(5):1625–1639CrossRef Davin EP, Narayan AI (2020) Pregnancy as a period of risk, adaptation and resilience for mothers and infants. Dev Psychopathol 32(5):1625–1639CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Sustained social withdrawal behavior and ‘difficult’ temperament among infants, in relation to maternal affectivity in a low-income area of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Authors
Daniel Okitundu-Luwa
Brigitte Imbula Essam
Marie-Thérèse Sombo Ayanne
Ally Ndjukendi Omba
Franck Otete Djamba
Tharcisse Kayembe Kalula
Timothée Kamanga Mbuyi
Antoine Guedeney
Espérance Kashala-Abotnes
Publication date
18-09-2021
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry / Issue 3/2023
Print ISSN: 1018-8827
Electronic ISSN: 1435-165X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-021-01873-9

Other articles of this Issue 3/2023

European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 3/2023 Go to the issue