Skip to main content
Top

09-05-2024 | Review

Monomeric compounds from natural products for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis: a review

Authors: Zhuqing Li, Yanyong Yang, Fu Gao

Published in: Inflammopharmacology

Login to get access

Abstract

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is the end stage of lung injury and chronic lung diseases that results in diminished lung function, respiratory failure, and ultimately mortality. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of this disease remains elusive, and effective therapeutic options are currently limited, posing a significant clinical challenge. In addition, research on traditional Chinese medicine and naturopathic medicine is hampered by several complications due to complex composition and lack of reference compounds. Natural product monomers, possessing diverse biological activities and excellent safety profiles, have emerged as potential candidates for preventing and treating PF. The effective anti-PF ingredients identified can be generally divided into flavonoids, saponins, polysaccharides, and alkaloids. Specifically, these monomeric compounds can attenuate inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and other physiopathological processes of the lung through many signaling pathways. They also improve pulmonary factors. Additionally, they ameliorate epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast–myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT) by regulating multiple signal amplifiers in the lungs, thereby mitigating PF. This review highlights the significant role of monomer compounds derived from natural products in reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, and inhibiting EMT process. The article provides comprehensive information and serves as a solid foundation for further exploration of new strategies to harness the potential of botanicals in the treatment of PF.
Literature
go back to reference Adamcakova J, Balentova S, Barosova R, Hanusrichterova J, Mikolka P, Prso K, Mokry J, Tatarkova Z, Kalenska D, Mokra D (2023) Effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on markers of inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of pulmonary silicosis. Int J Mol Sci 24:1857PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Adamcakova J, Balentova S, Barosova R, Hanusrichterova J, Mikolka P, Prso K, Mokry J, Tatarkova Z, Kalenska D, Mokra D (2023) Effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on markers of inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of pulmonary silicosis. Int J Mol Sci 24:1857PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Agackiran Y, Gul H, Gunay E, Akyurek N, Memis L, Gunay S, Sirin YS, Ide T (2012) The efficiency of proanthocyanidin in an experimental pulmonary fibrosis model: comparison with taurine. Inflammation 35:1402–1410PubMedCrossRef Agackiran Y, Gul H, Gunay E, Akyurek N, Memis L, Gunay S, Sirin YS, Ide T (2012) The efficiency of proanthocyanidin in an experimental pulmonary fibrosis model: comparison with taurine. Inflammation 35:1402–1410PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Alharbi KS, Fuloria NK, Fuloria S, Rahman SB, Al-Malki WH, Javed S, Thangavelu L, Singh SK, Rama RA, Jha NK, Chellappan DK, Dua K, Gupta G (2021) Nuclear factor-kappa B and its role in inflammatory lung disease. Chem Biol Interact 345:109568PubMedCrossRef Alharbi KS, Fuloria NK, Fuloria S, Rahman SB, Al-Malki WH, Javed S, Thangavelu L, Singh SK, Rama RA, Jha NK, Chellappan DK, Dua K, Gupta G (2021) Nuclear factor-kappa B and its role in inflammatory lung disease. Chem Biol Interact 345:109568PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ameeramja J, Perumal E (2018) Possible modulatory effect of tamarind seed coat extract on fluoride-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in rats. Inflammation 41:886–895PubMedCrossRef Ameeramja J, Perumal E (2018) Possible modulatory effect of tamarind seed coat extract on fluoride-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in rats. Inflammation 41:886–895PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference An L, Peng LY, Sun NY, Yang YL, Zhang XW, Li B, Liu BL, Li P, Chen J (2019) Tanshinone IIA activates nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 to restrain pulmonary fibrosis via regulation of redox homeostasis and glutaminolysis. Antioxid Redox Signal 30:1831–1848PubMedCrossRef An L, Peng LY, Sun NY, Yang YL, Zhang XW, Li B, Liu BL, Li P, Chen J (2019) Tanshinone IIA activates nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 to restrain pulmonary fibrosis via regulation of redox homeostasis and glutaminolysis. Antioxid Redox Signal 30:1831–1848PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Avila-Carrasco L, Majano P, Sanchez-Tomero JA, Selgas R, Lopez-Cabrera M, Aguilera A, Gonzalez MG (2019) Natural plants compounds as modulators of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Front Pharmacol 10:715PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Avila-Carrasco L, Majano P, Sanchez-Tomero JA, Selgas R, Lopez-Cabrera M, Aguilera A, Gonzalez MG (2019) Natural plants compounds as modulators of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Front Pharmacol 10:715PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Bacchetti T, Morresi C, Bellachioma L, Ferretti G (2020) Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of carthamus tinctorius, hydroxy safflor yellow A, and safflor yellow A. Antioxidants 9:119PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Bacchetti T, Morresi C, Bellachioma L, Ferretti G (2020) Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of carthamus tinctorius, hydroxy safflor yellow A, and safflor yellow A. Antioxidants 9:119PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Behr J, Prasse A, Kreuter M, Johow J, Rabe KF, Bonella F, Bonnet R, Grohe C, Held M, Wilkens H, Hammerl P, Koschel D, Blaas S, Wirtz H, Ficker JH, Neumeister W, Schonfeld N, Claussen M, Kneidinger N, Frankenberger M, Hummler S, Kahn N, Tello S, Freise J, Welte T, Neuser P, Gunther A, Investigators R (2021) Pirfenidone in patients with progressive fibrotic interstitial lung diseases other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (RELIEF): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial. Lancet Respir Med 9:476–486PubMedCrossRef Behr J, Prasse A, Kreuter M, Johow J, Rabe KF, Bonella F, Bonnet R, Grohe C, Held M, Wilkens H, Hammerl P, Koschel D, Blaas S, Wirtz H, Ficker JH, Neumeister W, Schonfeld N, Claussen M, Kneidinger N, Frankenberger M, Hummler S, Kahn N, Tello S, Freise J, Welte T, Neuser P, Gunther A, Investigators R (2021) Pirfenidone in patients with progressive fibrotic interstitial lung diseases other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (RELIEF): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial. Lancet Respir Med 9:476–486PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bi Z, Wang Y, Zhang W (2021) A comprehensive review of tanshinone IIA and its derivatives in fibrosis treatment. Biomed Pharmacother 137:111404PubMedCrossRef Bi Z, Wang Y, Zhang W (2021) A comprehensive review of tanshinone IIA and its derivatives in fibrosis treatment. Biomed Pharmacother 137:111404PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chauhan PS, Dash D, Singh R (2017) Intranasal curcumin inhibits pulmonary fibrosis by modulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma. Inflammation 40:248–258PubMedCrossRef Chauhan PS, Dash D, Singh R (2017) Intranasal curcumin inhibits pulmonary fibrosis by modulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma. Inflammation 40:248–258PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chen H, Chen Q, Jiang CM, Shi GY, Sui BW, Zhang W, Yang LZ, Li ZY, Liu L, Su YM, Zhao WC, Sun HQ, Li ZZ, Fu Z (2018) Triptolide suppresses paraquat induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting TGFB1-dependent epithelial mesenchymal transition. Toxicol Lett 284:1–9PubMedCrossRef Chen H, Chen Q, Jiang CM, Shi GY, Sui BW, Zhang W, Yang LZ, Li ZY, Liu L, Su YM, Zhao WC, Sun HQ, Li ZZ, Fu Z (2018) Triptolide suppresses paraquat induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting TGFB1-dependent epithelial mesenchymal transition. Toxicol Lett 284:1–9PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chitra P, Saiprasad G, Manikandan R, Sudhandiran G (2013) Berberine attenuates bleomycin induced pulmonary toxicity and fibrosis via suppressing NF-kappaB dependant TGF-beta activation: a biphasic experimental study. Toxicol Lett 219:178–193PubMedCrossRef Chitra P, Saiprasad G, Manikandan R, Sudhandiran G (2013) Berberine attenuates bleomycin induced pulmonary toxicity and fibrosis via suppressing NF-kappaB dependant TGF-beta activation: a biphasic experimental study. Toxicol Lett 219:178–193PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chitra P, Saiprasad G, Manikandan R, Sudhandiran G (2015) Berberine inhibits Smad and non-Smad signaling cascades and enhances autophagy against pulmonary fibrosis. J Mol Med (berl) 93:1015–1031PubMedCrossRef Chitra P, Saiprasad G, Manikandan R, Sudhandiran G (2015) Berberine inhibits Smad and non-Smad signaling cascades and enhances autophagy against pulmonary fibrosis. J Mol Med (berl) 93:1015–1031PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cui X, Sun X, Lu F, Jiang X (2018) Baicalein represses TGF-beta1-induced fibroblast differentiation through the inhibition of miR-21. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 358:35–42PubMedCrossRef Cui X, Sun X, Lu F, Jiang X (2018) Baicalein represses TGF-beta1-induced fibroblast differentiation through the inhibition of miR-21. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 358:35–42PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Divya T, Velavan B, Sudhandiran G (2018) Regulation of transforming growth factor-β/smad-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition by celastrol provides protection against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 123:122–129PubMedCrossRef Divya T, Velavan B, Sudhandiran G (2018) Regulation of transforming growth factor-β/smad-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition by celastrol provides protection against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 123:122–129PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference El-Baba C, Baassiri A, Kiriako G, Dia B, Fadlallah S, Moodad S, Darwiche N (2021) Terpenoids’ anti-cancer effects: focus on autophagy. Apoptosis 26:491–511PubMedCrossRef El-Baba C, Baassiri A, Kiriako G, Dia B, Fadlallah S, Moodad S, Darwiche N (2021) Terpenoids’ anti-cancer effects: focus on autophagy. Apoptosis 26:491–511PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Feng F, Cheng P, Xu S, Li N, Wang H, Zhang Y, Wang W (2020) Tanshinone IIA attenuates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis via Nrf2-mediated inhibition of EMT and TGF-beta1/Smad signaling. Chem Biol Interact 319:109024PubMedCrossRef Feng F, Cheng P, Xu S, Li N, Wang H, Zhang Y, Wang W (2020) Tanshinone IIA attenuates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis via Nrf2-mediated inhibition of EMT and TGF-beta1/Smad signaling. Chem Biol Interact 319:109024PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gao Y, Lu J, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Gu Z, Jiang X (2013) Baicalein attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats through inhibition of miR-21. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 26:649–654PubMedCrossRef Gao Y, Lu J, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Gu Z, Jiang X (2013) Baicalein attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats through inhibition of miR-21. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 26:649–654PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Guan R, Wang X, Zhao X, Song N, Zhu J, Wang J, Wang J, Xia C, Chen Y, Zhu D, Shen L (2016) Emodin ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast activation. Sci Rep 6:35696PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Guan R, Wang X, Zhao X, Song N, Zhu J, Wang J, Wang J, Xia C, Chen Y, Zhu D, Shen L (2016) Emodin ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast activation. Sci Rep 6:35696PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Guan S, Liu Q, Han F, Gu W, Song L, Zhang Y, Guo X, Xu W (2017) Ginsenoside Rg1 ameliorates cigarette smoke-induced airway fibrosis by suppressing the TGF-β1/smad pathway in vivo and in vitro. Biomed Res Int 2017:1–12 Guan S, Liu Q, Han F, Gu W, Song L, Zhang Y, Guo X, Xu W (2017) Ginsenoside Rg1 ameliorates cigarette smoke-induced airway fibrosis by suppressing the TGF-β1/smad pathway in vivo and in vitro. Biomed Res Int 2017:1–12
go back to reference Guo K, Chen J, Chen Z, Luo G, Yang S, Zhang M, Hong J, Zhang L, Chen C (2020) Triptolide alleviates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting IKKbeta stimulated LOX production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 527:283–288PubMedCrossRef Guo K, Chen J, Chen Z, Luo G, Yang S, Zhang M, Hong J, Zhang L, Chen C (2020) Triptolide alleviates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting IKKbeta stimulated LOX production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 527:283–288PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Haak AJ, Tan Q, Tschumperlin DJ (2018) Matrix biomechanics and dynamics in pulmonary fibrosis. Matrix Biol 73:64–76PubMedCrossRef Haak AJ, Tan Q, Tschumperlin DJ (2018) Matrix biomechanics and dynamics in pulmonary fibrosis. Matrix Biol 73:64–76PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hasan M, Paul NC, Paul SK, Saikat ASM, Akter H, Mandal M, Lee S-S (2022) Natural product-based potential therapeutic interventions of pulmonary fibrosis. Molecules 27:1481PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hasan M, Paul NC, Paul SK, Saikat ASM, Akter H, Mandal M, Lee S-S (2022) Natural product-based potential therapeutic interventions of pulmonary fibrosis. Molecules 27:1481PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference He H, Tang H, Gao L, Wu Y, Feng Z, Lin H, Wu T (2015) Tanshinone IIA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Mol Med Rep 11:4190–4196PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef He H, Tang H, Gao L, Wu Y, Feng Z, Lin H, Wu T (2015) Tanshinone IIA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Mol Med Rep 11:4190–4196PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Hewlett JC, Kropski JA, Blackwell TS (2018) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and emerging therapeutic targets. Matrix Biol 71–72:112–127PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hewlett JC, Kropski JA, Blackwell TS (2018) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and emerging therapeutic targets. Matrix Biol 71–72:112–127PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Hosseini S, Imenshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H, Karimi G (2018) Effects of plant extracts and bioactive compounds on attenuation of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Biomed Pharmacother 107:1454–1465PubMedCrossRef Hosseini S, Imenshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H, Karimi G (2018) Effects of plant extracts and bioactive compounds on attenuation of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Biomed Pharmacother 107:1454–1465PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Huang X, He Y, Chen Y, Wu P, Gui D, Cai H, Chen A, Chen M, Dai C, Yao D, Wang L (2016) Baicalin attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via adenosine A2a receptor related TGF-beta1-induced ERK1/2 signaling pathway. BMC Pulm Med 16:132PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Huang X, He Y, Chen Y, Wu P, Gui D, Cai H, Chen A, Chen M, Dai C, Yao D, Wang L (2016) Baicalin attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via adenosine A2a receptor related TGF-beta1-induced ERK1/2 signaling pathway. BMC Pulm Med 16:132PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Huang XT, Liu W, Zhou Y, Hao CX, Zhou Y, Zhang CY, Sun CC, Luo ZQ, Tang SY (2019) Dihydroartemisinin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by suppressing NF-κB signaling in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Int J Mol Med 44:2213–2222PubMedPubMedCentral Huang XT, Liu W, Zhou Y, Hao CX, Zhou Y, Zhang CY, Sun CC, Luo ZQ, Tang SY (2019) Dihydroartemisinin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by suppressing NF-κB signaling in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Int J Mol Med 44:2213–2222PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Impellizzeri D, Talero E, Siracusa R, Alcaide A, Cordaro M, Maria ZJ, Bruschetta G, Crupi R, Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S, Motilva V (2015) Protective effect of polyphenols in an inflammatory process associated with experimental pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Br J Nutr 114:853–865PubMedCrossRef Impellizzeri D, Talero E, Siracusa R, Alcaide A, Cordaro M, Maria ZJ, Bruschetta G, Crupi R, Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S, Motilva V (2015) Protective effect of polyphenols in an inflammatory process associated with experimental pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Br J Nutr 114:853–865PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Javad-Mousavi SA, Hemmati AA, Mehrzadi S, Hosseinzadeh A, Houshmand G, Rashidi NMR, Mehrabani M, Goudarzi M (2016) Protective effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract against Paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Biomed Pharmacother 81:329–336PubMedCrossRef Javad-Mousavi SA, Hemmati AA, Mehrzadi S, Hosseinzadeh A, Houshmand G, Rashidi NMR, Mehrabani M, Goudarzi M (2016) Protective effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract against Paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Biomed Pharmacother 81:329–336PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ji Y, Dou Y-N, Zhao Q-W, Zhang J-Z, Yang Y, Wang T, Xia Y-F, Dai Y, Wei Z-F (2016) Paeoniflorin suppresses TGF-β mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary fibrosis through a Smad-dependent pathway. Acta Pharmacol Sin 37:794–804PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Ji Y, Dou Y-N, Zhao Q-W, Zhang J-Z, Yang Y, Wang T, Xia Y-F, Dai Y, Wei Z-F (2016) Paeoniflorin suppresses TGF-β mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary fibrosis through a Smad-dependent pathway. Acta Pharmacol Sin 37:794–804PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Jin M, Sun C-Y, Pei C-Q, Wang L, Zhang P-C (2013) Effect of safflor yellow injection on inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammatory injury in mice. Chin J Integr Med 19:836–843PubMedCrossRef Jin M, Sun C-Y, Pei C-Q, Wang L, Zhang P-C (2013) Effect of safflor yellow injection on inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammatory injury in mice. Chin J Integr Med 19:836–843PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kinnula VL, Fattman CL, Tan RJ, Oury TD (2005) Oxidative stress in pulmonary fibrosis: a possible role for redox modulatory therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:417–422PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kinnula VL, Fattman CL, Tan RJ, Oury TD (2005) Oxidative stress in pulmonary fibrosis: a possible role for redox modulatory therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:417–422PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Kolosova I, Nethery D, Kern JA (2011) Role of Smad2/3 and p38 MAP kinase in TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pulmonary epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol 226:1248–1254PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kolosova I, Nethery D, Kern JA (2011) Role of Smad2/3 and p38 MAP kinase in TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pulmonary epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol 226:1248–1254PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Lan X, Zhao J, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Liu Y, Xu F (2020) Oxymatrine exerts organ- and tissue-protective effects by regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis: from bench to bedside. Pharmacol Res 151:104541PubMedCrossRef Lan X, Zhao J, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Liu Y, Xu F (2020) Oxymatrine exerts organ- and tissue-protective effects by regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis: from bench to bedside. Pharmacol Res 151:104541PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lee JC, Kinniry PA, Arguiri E, Serota M, Kanterakis S, Chatterjee S, Solomides CC, Javvadi P, Koumenis C, Cengel KA, Christofidou-Solomidou M (2010) Dietary curcumin increases antioxidant defenses in lung, ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and improves survival in mice. Radiat Res 173:590–601PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lee JC, Kinniry PA, Arguiri E, Serota M, Kanterakis S, Chatterjee S, Solomides CC, Javvadi P, Koumenis C, Cengel KA, Christofidou-Solomidou M (2010) Dietary curcumin increases antioxidant defenses in lung, ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and improves survival in mice. Radiat Res 173:590–601PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Li L, Hou X, Xu R, Liu C, Tu M (2017) Research review on the pharmacological effects of astragaloside IV. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 31:17–36PubMedCrossRef Li L, Hou X, Xu R, Liu C, Tu M (2017) Research review on the pharmacological effects of astragaloside IV. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 31:17–36PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Li XH, Xiao T, Yang JH, Qin Y, Gao JJ, Liu HJ, Zhou HG (2018) Parthenolide attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via the NF-kappaB/Snail signaling pathway. Respir Res 19:111PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Li XH, Xiao T, Yang JH, Qin Y, Gao JJ, Liu HJ, Zhou HG (2018) Parthenolide attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via the NF-kappaB/Snail signaling pathway. Respir Res 19:111PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Li J, Liu J, Yue W, Xu K, Cai W, Cui F, Li Z, Wang W, He J (2020a) Andrographolide attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β1 in alveolar epithelial cells. J Cell Mol Med 24:10501–10511PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Li J, Liu J, Yue W, Xu K, Cai W, Cui F, Li Z, Wang W, He J (2020a) Andrographolide attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β1 in alveolar epithelial cells. J Cell Mol Med 24:10501–10511PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Li X, Mo N, Li Z (2020b) Ginsenosides: potential therapeutic source for fibrosis-associated human diseases. J Ginseng Res 44:386–398PubMedCrossRef Li X, Mo N, Li Z (2020b) Ginsenosides: potential therapeutic source for fibrosis-associated human diseases. J Ginseng Res 44:386–398PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Liu M-W, Liu R, Wu H-Y, Li Y-Y, Su M-X, Dong M-N, Zhang W, Qian C-Y (2015) Radix puerariae extracts ameliorate paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by attenuating follistatin-like 1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 signalling pathways through downregulation of miRNA-21 expression. BMC Complement Altern Med 16:1–5CrossRef Liu M-W, Liu R, Wu H-Y, Li Y-Y, Su M-X, Dong M-N, Zhang W, Qian C-Y (2015) Radix puerariae extracts ameliorate paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by attenuating follistatin-like 1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 signalling pathways through downregulation of miRNA-21 expression. BMC Complement Altern Med 16:1–5CrossRef
go back to reference Liu B, Cao B, Zhang D, Xiao N, Chen H, Li GQ, Peng SC, Wei LQ (2016a) Salvianolic acid B protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary injury by mediating Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-beta1/Smad3 signaling. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 309:111–120PubMedCrossRef Liu B, Cao B, Zhang D, Xiao N, Chen H, Li GQ, Peng SC, Wei LQ (2016a) Salvianolic acid B protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary injury by mediating Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-beta1/Smad3 signaling. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 309:111–120PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Liu Q, Chu H, Ma Y, Wu T, Qian F, Ren X, Tu W, Zhou X, Jin L, Wu W, Wang J (2016b) Salvianolic acid B attenuates experimental pulmonary fibrosis through inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Sci Rep 6:27610PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Liu Q, Chu H, Ma Y, Wu T, Qian F, Ren X, Tu W, Zhou X, Jin L, Wu W, Wang J (2016b) Salvianolic acid B attenuates experimental pulmonary fibrosis through inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Sci Rep 6:27610PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Liu Q, Shi X, Tang L, Xu W, Jiang S, Ding W, Feng Q, Chu H, Ma Y, Li Y, Lu J, Pu W, Zhou X, Jin L, Wang J, Wu W (2018) Salvianolic acid B attenuates experimental pulmonary inflammation by protecting endothelial cells against oxidative stress injury. Eur J Pharmacol 840:9–19PubMedCrossRef Liu Q, Shi X, Tang L, Xu W, Jiang S, Ding W, Feng Q, Chu H, Ma Y, Li Y, Lu J, Pu W, Zhou X, Jin L, Wang J, Wu W (2018) Salvianolic acid B attenuates experimental pulmonary inflammation by protecting endothelial cells against oxidative stress injury. Eur J Pharmacol 840:9–19PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Liu H, Yu H, Cao Z, Gu J, Pei L, Jia M, Su M (2019a) Kaempferol modulates autophagy and alleviates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. DNA Cell Biol 38:1418–1426PubMedCrossRef Liu H, Yu H, Cao Z, Gu J, Pei L, Jia M, Su M (2019a) Kaempferol modulates autophagy and alleviates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. DNA Cell Biol 38:1418–1426PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Liu MW, Su MX, Tang DY, Hao L, Xun XH, Huang YQ (2019b) Ligustrazin increases lung cell autophagy and ameliorates paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR and hedgehog signalling via increasing miR-193a expression. BMC Pulm Med 19:35PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Liu MW, Su MX, Tang DY, Hao L, Xun XH, Huang YQ (2019b) Ligustrazin increases lung cell autophagy and ameliorates paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR and hedgehog signalling via increasing miR-193a expression. BMC Pulm Med 19:35PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Liu T, Xu L, Wang C, Chen K, Xia Y, Li J, Li S, Wu L, Feng J, Xu S, Wang W, Lu X, Fan X, Mo W, Zhou Y, Zhao Y, Guo C (2019c) Alleviation of hepatic fibrosis and autophagy via inhibition of transforming growth factor-β 1/Smads pathway through shikonin. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 34:263–276PubMedCrossRef Liu T, Xu L, Wang C, Chen K, Xia Y, Li J, Li S, Wu L, Feng J, Xu S, Wang W, Lu X, Fan X, Mo W, Zhou Y, Zhao Y, Guo C (2019c) Alleviation of hepatic fibrosis and autophagy via inhibition of transforming growth factor-β 1/Smads pathway through shikonin. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 34:263–276PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lu P, Li J, Liu C, Yang J, Peng H, Xue Z, Liu Z (2022) Salvianolic acid B dry powder inhaler for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asian J Pharm Sci 17:447–461PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lu P, Li J, Liu C, Yang J, Peng H, Xue Z, Liu Z (2022) Salvianolic acid B dry powder inhaler for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asian J Pharm Sci 17:447–461PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Luppi F, Kalluri M, Faverio P, Kreuter M, Ferrara G (2021) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis beyond the lung: understanding disease mechanisms to improve diagnosis and management. Respir Res 22:109PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Luppi F, Kalluri M, Faverio P, Kreuter M, Ferrara G (2021) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis beyond the lung: understanding disease mechanisms to improve diagnosis and management. Respir Res 22:109PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Ma X, Chen R, Liu X, Xie J, Si K, Duan L (2013) Effects of matrine on JAK-STAT signaling transduction pathways in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 10:442–448PubMedPubMedCentral Ma X, Chen R, Liu X, Xie J, Si K, Duan L (2013) Effects of matrine on JAK-STAT signaling transduction pathways in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 10:442–448PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Moss BJ, Ryter SW, Rosas IO (2022) Pathogenic mechanisms underlying idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Annu Rev Pathol 17:515–546PubMedCrossRef Moss BJ, Ryter SW, Rosas IO (2022) Pathogenic mechanisms underlying idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Annu Rev Pathol 17:515–546PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ng-Blichfeldt J-P, de Jong T, Kortekaas RK, Wu X, Lindner M, Guryev V, Hiemstra PS, Stolk J, Königshoff M, Gosens R (2019) TGF-β activation impairs fibroblast ability to support adult lung epithelial progenitor cell organoid formation. Am J Physiol-Lung Cell Mol Physiol 317:L14–L28PubMedCrossRef Ng-Blichfeldt J-P, de Jong T, Kortekaas RK, Wu X, Lindner M, Guryev V, Hiemstra PS, Stolk J, Königshoff M, Gosens R (2019) TGF-β activation impairs fibroblast ability to support adult lung epithelial progenitor cell organoid formation. Am J Physiol-Lung Cell Mol Physiol 317:L14–L28PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nie Y, Yang Y, Zhang J, Cai G, Chang Y, Chai G, Guo C (2017) Shikonin suppresses pulmonary fibroblasts proliferation and activation by regulating Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Biomed Pharmacother 95:1119–1128PubMedCrossRef Nie Y, Yang Y, Zhang J, Cai G, Chang Y, Chai G, Guo C (2017) Shikonin suppresses pulmonary fibroblasts proliferation and activation by regulating Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Biomed Pharmacother 95:1119–1128PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nie Y, Zhang D, Qian F, Wu Y (2019) Baccatin III ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via suppression of TGF-beta1 production and TGF-beta1-induced fibroblast differentiation. Int Immunopharmacol 74:105696PubMedCrossRef Nie Y, Zhang D, Qian F, Wu Y (2019) Baccatin III ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via suppression of TGF-beta1 production and TGF-beta1-induced fibroblast differentiation. Int Immunopharmacol 74:105696PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nikbakht J, Hemmati AA, Arzi A, Mansouri MT, Rezaie A, Ghafourian M (2015) Protective effect of gallic acid against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Pharmacol Rep 67:1061–1067PubMedCrossRef Nikbakht J, Hemmati AA, Arzi A, Mansouri MT, Rezaie A, Ghafourian M (2015) Protective effect of gallic acid against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Pharmacol Rep 67:1061–1067PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Otoupalova E, Smith S, Cheng G, Thannickal VJ (2020) Oxidative stress in pulmonary fibrosis. Compr Physiol 10:509–547PubMedCrossRef Otoupalova E, Smith S, Cheng G, Thannickal VJ (2020) Oxidative stress in pulmonary fibrosis. Compr Physiol 10:509–547PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pang X, Shao L, Nie X, Yan H, Li C, Yeo AJ, Lavin MF, Xia Q, Shao H, Yu G, Jia Q, Peng C (2021) Emodin attenuates silica-induced lung injury by inhibition of inflammation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Int Immunopharmacol 91:107277PubMedCrossRef Pang X, Shao L, Nie X, Yan H, Li C, Yeo AJ, Lavin MF, Xia Q, Shao H, Yu G, Jia Q, Peng C (2021) Emodin attenuates silica-induced lung injury by inhibition of inflammation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Int Immunopharmacol 91:107277PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Parimon T, Yao C, Stripp BR, Noble PW, Chen P (2020) Alveolar epithelial type II Cells as drivers of lung fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Int J Mol Sci 21:2269PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Parimon T, Yao C, Stripp BR, Noble PW, Chen P (2020) Alveolar epithelial type II Cells as drivers of lung fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Int J Mol Sci 21:2269PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Pekovic-Vaughan V, Gibbs J, Yoshitane H, Yang N, Pathiranage D, Guo B, Sagami A, Taguchi K, Bechtold D, Loudon A, Yamamoto M, Chan J, van der Horst GTJ, Fukada Y, Meng Q-J (2014) The circadian clock regulates rhythmic activation of the NRF2/glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense pathway to modulate pulmonary fibrosis. Genes Dev 28:548–560PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Pekovic-Vaughan V, Gibbs J, Yoshitane H, Yang N, Pathiranage D, Guo B, Sagami A, Taguchi K, Bechtold D, Loudon A, Yamamoto M, Chan J, van der Horst GTJ, Fukada Y, Meng Q-J (2014) The circadian clock regulates rhythmic activation of the NRF2/glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense pathway to modulate pulmonary fibrosis. Genes Dev 28:548–560PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Peng L, Wen L, Shi Q-F, Gao F, Huang B, Meng J, Hu C-P, Wang C-M (2020) Scutellarin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis through inhibiting NF-κB/NLRP3-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition and inflammation. Cell Death Dis 11:978PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Peng L, Wen L, Shi Q-F, Gao F, Huang B, Meng J, Hu C-P, Wang C-M (2020) Scutellarin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis through inhibiting NF-κB/NLRP3-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition and inflammation. Cell Death Dis 11:978PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Phan THG, Paliogiannis P, Nasrallah GK, Giordo R, Eid AH, Fois AG, Zinellu A, Mangoni AA, Pintus G (2021) Emerging cellular and molecular determinants of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Cell Mol Life Sci 78:2031–2057PubMedCrossRef Phan THG, Paliogiannis P, Nasrallah GK, Giordo R, Eid AH, Fois AG, Zinellu A, Mangoni AA, Pintus G (2021) Emerging cellular and molecular determinants of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Cell Mol Life Sci 78:2031–2057PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Piao XM, Huo Y, Kang JP, Mathiyalagan R, Zhang H, Yang DU, Kim M, Yang DC, Kang SC, Wang YP (2020) Diversity of ginsenoside profiles produced by various processing technologies. Molecules 25:4390PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Piao XM, Huo Y, Kang JP, Mathiyalagan R, Zhang H, Yang DU, Kim M, Yang DC, Kang SC, Wang YP (2020) Diversity of ginsenoside profiles produced by various processing technologies. Molecules 25:4390PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Qian W, Cai X, Qian Q, Zhang W, Wang D (2018) Astragaloside<scp>IV</scp>modulates<scp>TGF</scp>-β1-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. J Cell Mol Med 22:4354–4365PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Qian W, Cai X, Qian Q, Zhang W, Wang D (2018) Astragaloside<scp>IV</scp>modulates<scp>TGF</scp>-β1-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. J Cell Mol Med 22:4354–4365PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Resende VQ, Reis-Goes KH, Finato AC, de Fátima Almeida-Donanzam D, dos Santos AR, Perico J, Amorim BC, Venturini J (2022) Combined silymarin and cotrimoxazole therapy attenuates pulmonary fibrosis in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. J Fungi 8:1010CrossRef Resende VQ, Reis-Goes KH, Finato AC, de Fátima Almeida-Donanzam D, dos Santos AR, Perico J, Amorim BC, Venturini J (2022) Combined silymarin and cotrimoxazole therapy attenuates pulmonary fibrosis in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. J Fungi 8:1010CrossRef
go back to reference Rodriguez LR, Bui SN, Beuschel RT, Ellis E, Liberti EM, Chhina MK, Cannon B, Lemma M, Nathan SD, Grant GM (2019) Curcumin induced oxidative stress attenuation by N-acetylcysteine co-treatment: a fibroblast and epithelial cell in-vitro study in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Mol Med 25:1–12CrossRef Rodriguez LR, Bui SN, Beuschel RT, Ellis E, Liberti EM, Chhina MK, Cannon B, Lemma M, Nathan SD, Grant GM (2019) Curcumin induced oxidative stress attenuation by N-acetylcysteine co-treatment: a fibroblast and epithelial cell in-vitro study in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Mol Med 25:1–12CrossRef
go back to reference Rogliani P, Calzetta L, Cavalli F, Matera MG, Cazzola M (2016) Pirfenidone, nintedanib and N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 40:95–103PubMedCrossRef Rogliani P, Calzetta L, Cavalli F, Matera MG, Cazzola M (2016) Pirfenidone, nintedanib and N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 40:95–103PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ryu C, Sun H, Gulati M, Herazo-Maya JD, Chen Y, Osafo-Addo A, Brandsdorfer C, Winkler J, Blaul C, Faunce J, Pan H, Woolard T, Tzouvelekis A, Antin-Ozerkis DE, Puchalski JT, Slade M, Gonzalez AL, Bogenhagen DF, Kirillov V, Feghali-Bostwick C, Gibson K, Lindell K, Herzog RI, Dela Cruz CS, Mehal W, Kaminski N, Herzog EL, Trujillo G (2017) Extracellular mitochondrial DNA is generated by fibroblasts and predicts death in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respirat Crit Care Med 196:1571–1581CrossRef Ryu C, Sun H, Gulati M, Herazo-Maya JD, Chen Y, Osafo-Addo A, Brandsdorfer C, Winkler J, Blaul C, Faunce J, Pan H, Woolard T, Tzouvelekis A, Antin-Ozerkis DE, Puchalski JT, Slade M, Gonzalez AL, Bogenhagen DF, Kirillov V, Feghali-Bostwick C, Gibson K, Lindell K, Herzog RI, Dela Cruz CS, Mehal W, Kaminski N, Herzog EL, Trujillo G (2017) Extracellular mitochondrial DNA is generated by fibroblasts and predicts death in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respirat Crit Care Med 196:1571–1581CrossRef
go back to reference Savin IA, Zenkova MA, Sen’kova AV (2022) Pulmonary fibrosis as a result of acute lung inflammation: molecular mechanisms, relevant in vivo models, prognostic and therapeutic approaches. Int J Mol Sci 23:14959PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Savin IA, Zenkova MA, Sen’kova AV (2022) Pulmonary fibrosis as a result of acute lung inflammation: molecular mechanisms, relevant in vivo models, prognostic and therapeutic approaches. Int J Mol Sci 23:14959PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Scott KA, Cox PB, Njardarson JT (2022) Phenols in pharmaceuticals: analysis of a recurring motif. J Med Chem 65:7044–7072PubMedCrossRef Scott KA, Cox PB, Njardarson JT (2022) Phenols in pharmaceuticals: analysis of a recurring motif. J Med Chem 65:7044–7072PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Shaikh SB, Prabhakar Bhandary Y (2020) Effect of curcumin on IL-17A mediated pulmonary AMPK kinase/cyclooxygenase-2 expressions via activation of NFκB in bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol 85:106676PubMedCrossRef Shaikh SB, Prabhakar Bhandary Y (2020) Effect of curcumin on IL-17A mediated pulmonary AMPK kinase/cyclooxygenase-2 expressions via activation of NFκB in bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol 85:106676PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Slika H, Mansour H, Wehbe N, Nasser SA, Iratni R, Nasrallah G, Shaito A, Ghaddar T, Kobeissy F, Eid AH (2022) Therapeutic potential of flavonoids in cancer: ROS-mediated mechanisms. Biomed Pharmacother 146:112442PubMedCrossRef Slika H, Mansour H, Wehbe N, Nasser SA, Iratni R, Nasrallah G, Shaito A, Ghaddar T, Kobeissy F, Eid AH (2022) Therapeutic potential of flavonoids in cancer: ROS-mediated mechanisms. Biomed Pharmacother 146:112442PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sriram N, Kalayarasan S, Sudhandiran G (2009) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate augments antioxidant activities and inhibits inflammation during bleomycin-induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis through Nrf2-Keap1 signaling. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 22:221–236PubMedCrossRef Sriram N, Kalayarasan S, Sudhandiran G (2009) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate augments antioxidant activities and inhibits inflammation during bleomycin-induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis through Nrf2-Keap1 signaling. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 22:221–236PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stewart AG, Thomas B, Koff J (2018) TGF-beta: master regulator of inflammation and fibrosis. Respirology 23:1096–1097PubMedCrossRef Stewart AG, Thomas B, Koff J (2018) TGF-beta: master regulator of inflammation and fibrosis. Respirology 23:1096–1097PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sun Q, Liu Q, Zhou X, Wang X, Li H, Zhang W, Yuan H, Sun C (2022) Flavonoids regulate tumor-associated macrophages—from structure-activity relationship to clinical potential (Review). Pharmacol Res 184:106419PubMedCrossRef Sun Q, Liu Q, Zhou X, Wang X, Li H, Zhang W, Yuan H, Sun C (2022) Flavonoids regulate tumor-associated macrophages—from structure-activity relationship to clinical potential (Review). Pharmacol Res 184:106419PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Turgut NH, Kara H, Elagoz S, Deveci K, Gungor H, Arslanbas E (2016) The protective effect of naringin against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar rats. Pulm Med 2016:1–12CrossRef Turgut NH, Kara H, Elagoz S, Deveci K, Gungor H, Arslanbas E (2016) The protective effect of naringin against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar rats. Pulm Med 2016:1–12CrossRef
go back to reference Veith C, Drent M, Bast A, van Schooten FJ, Boots AW (2017) The disturbed redox-balance in pulmonary fibrosis is modulated by the plant flavonoid quercetin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 336:40–48PubMedCrossRef Veith C, Drent M, Bast A, van Schooten FJ, Boots AW (2017) The disturbed redox-balance in pulmonary fibrosis is modulated by the plant flavonoid quercetin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 336:40–48PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wang L, Jin M, Zang B-X, Wu Y (2011) Inhibitory effect of safflor yellow on pulmonary fibrosis. Biol Pharm Bull 34:511–516PubMedCrossRef Wang L, Jin M, Zang B-X, Wu Y (2011) Inhibitory effect of safflor yellow on pulmonary fibrosis. Biol Pharm Bull 34:511–516PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wang C, Song X, Li Y, Han F, Gao S, Wang X, Xie S, Lv C (2013) Low-dose paclitaxel ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis by suppressing TGF-β1/Smad3 pathway via miR-140 upregulation. PLoS ONE 8:e70725PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wang C, Song X, Li Y, Han F, Gao S, Wang X, Xie S, Lv C (2013) Low-dose paclitaxel ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis by suppressing TGF-β1/Smad3 pathway via miR-140 upregulation. PLoS ONE 8:e70725PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Wang J, He F, Chen L, Li Q, Jin S, Zheng H, Lin J, Zhang H, Ma S, Mei J, Yu J (2018a) Resveratrol inhibits pulmonary fibrosis by regulating miR-21 through MAPK/AP-1 pathways. Biomed Pharmacother 105:37–44PubMedCrossRef Wang J, He F, Chen L, Li Q, Jin S, Zheng H, Lin J, Zhang H, Ma S, Mei J, Yu J (2018a) Resveratrol inhibits pulmonary fibrosis by regulating miR-21 through MAPK/AP-1 pathways. Biomed Pharmacother 105:37–44PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wang Z-L, Wang S, Kuang Y, Hu Z-M, Qiao X, Ye M (2018b) A comprehensive review on phytochemistry, pharmacology, and flavonoid biosynthesis of Scutellaria baicalensis. Pharm Biol 56:465–484PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wang Z-L, Wang S, Kuang Y, Hu Z-M, Qiao X, Ye M (2018b) A comprehensive review on phytochemistry, pharmacology, and flavonoid biosynthesis of Scutellaria baicalensis. Pharm Biol 56:465–484PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Wang J, Wu Q, Ding L, Song S, Li Y, Shi L, Wang T, Zhao D, Wang Z, Li X (2021a) Therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of bioactive compounds against respiratory diseases: traditional chinese medicine theory and high-frequency use. Front Pharmacol 12:734450PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wang J, Wu Q, Ding L, Song S, Li Y, Shi L, Wang T, Zhao D, Wang Z, Li X (2021a) Therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of bioactive compounds against respiratory diseases: traditional chinese medicine theory and high-frequency use. Front Pharmacol 12:734450PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Wang Z, Li X, Chen H, Han L, Ji X, Wang Q, Wei L, Miu Y, Wang J, Mao J, Zhang Z (2021b) Resveratrol alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via suppressing HIF-1α and NF-κB expression. Aging 13:4605–4616PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wang Z, Li X, Chen H, Han L, Ji X, Wang Q, Wei L, Miu Y, Wang J, Mao J, Zhang Z (2021b) Resveratrol alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via suppressing HIF-1α and NF-κB expression. Aging 13:4605–4616PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Wang J, Hu K, Cai X, Yang B, He Q, Wang J, Weng Q (2022a) Targeting PI3K/AKT signaling for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Acta Pharm Sin B 12:18–32PubMedCrossRef Wang J, Hu K, Cai X, Yang B, He Q, Wang J, Weng Q (2022a) Targeting PI3K/AKT signaling for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Acta Pharm Sin B 12:18–32PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wang L, Zhu T, Feng D, Li R, Zhang C (2022b) Polyphenols from chinese herbal medicine: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets in pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Chin Med 50:1063–1094PubMedCrossRef Wang L, Zhu T, Feng D, Li R, Zhang C (2022b) Polyphenols from chinese herbal medicine: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets in pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Chin Med 50:1063–1094PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wei X, Chen Y, Huang W (2018) Ginsenoside Rg1 ameliorates liver fibrosis via suppressing epithelial to mesenchymal transition and reactive oxygen species production in vitro and in vivo. BioFactors 44:327–335CrossRef Wei X, Chen Y, Huang W (2018) Ginsenoside Rg1 ameliorates liver fibrosis via suppressing epithelial to mesenchymal transition and reactive oxygen species production in vitro and in vivo. BioFactors 44:327–335CrossRef
go back to reference Wei Y, Sun L, Liu C, Li L (2023) Naringin regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitophagy through the ATF3/PINK1 signaling axis to alleviate pulmonary fibrosis. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 396:1155–1169CrossRef Wei Y, Sun L, Liu C, Li L (2023) Naringin regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitophagy through the ATF3/PINK1 signaling axis to alleviate pulmonary fibrosis. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 396:1155–1169CrossRef
go back to reference Wollin L, Wex E, Pautsch A, Schnapp G, Hostettler KE, Stowasser S, Kolb M (2015) Mode of action of nintedanib in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Eur Respir J 45:1434–1445PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wollin L, Wex E, Pautsch A, Schnapp G, Hostettler KE, Stowasser S, Kolb M (2015) Mode of action of nintedanib in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Eur Respir J 45:1434–1445PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Wu H, Li Y, Wang Y, Xu D, Li C, Liu M, Sun X, Li Z (2014) Tanshinone IIA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via modulating angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/ angiotensin-(1–7) axis in rats. Int J Med Sci 11:578–586PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wu H, Li Y, Wang Y, Xu D, Li C, Liu M, Sun X, Li Z (2014) Tanshinone IIA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via modulating angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/ angiotensin-(1–7) axis in rats. Int J Med Sci 11:578–586PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Xiao Y, Zhou L, Zhang T, Qin C, Wei P, Luo L, Luo L, Huang G, Chen A, Liu G (2020) Anti-fibrosis activity of quercetin attenuates rabbit tracheal stenosis via the TGF-beta/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Life Sci 250:117552PubMedCrossRef Xiao Y, Zhou L, Zhang T, Qin C, Wei P, Luo L, Luo L, Huang G, Chen A, Liu G (2020) Anti-fibrosis activity of quercetin attenuates rabbit tracheal stenosis via the TGF-beta/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Life Sci 250:117552PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Xue Z, Zhao F, Sang X, Qiao Y, Shao R, Wang Y, Gao S, Fan G, Zhu Y, Yang J (2021) Combination therapy of tanshinone <scp>IIA</scp> and puerarin for pulmonary fibrosis via targeting <scp>IL6-JAK2-STAT3</scp> / <scp>STAT1</scp> signaling pathways. Phytother Res 35:5883–5898PubMedCrossRef Xue Z, Zhao F, Sang X, Qiao Y, Shao R, Wang Y, Gao S, Fan G, Zhu Y, Yang J (2021) Combination therapy of tanshinone <scp>IIA</scp> and puerarin for pulmonary fibrosis via targeting <scp>IL6-JAK2-STAT3</scp> / <scp>STAT1</scp> signaling pathways. Phytother Res 35:5883–5898PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yang T, Wang J, Pang Y, Dang X, Ren H, Liu Y, Chen M, Shang D (2016) Emodin suppresses silica-induced lung fibrosis by promoting Sirt1 signaling via direct contact. Mol Med Rep 14:4643–4649PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Yang T, Wang J, Pang Y, Dang X, Ren H, Liu Y, Chen M, Shang D (2016) Emodin suppresses silica-induced lung fibrosis by promoting Sirt1 signaling via direct contact. Mol Med Rep 14:4643–4649PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Yang DX, Qiu J, Zhou HH, Yu Y, Zhou DL, Xu Y, Zhu MZ, Ge XP, Li JM, Lv CJ, Zhang HQ, Yuan WD (2018) Dihydroartemisinin alleviates oxidative stress in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Life Sci 205:176–183PubMedCrossRef Yang DX, Qiu J, Zhou HH, Yu Y, Zhou DL, Xu Y, Zhu MZ, Ge XP, Li JM, Lv CJ, Zhang HQ, Yuan WD (2018) Dihydroartemisinin alleviates oxidative stress in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Life Sci 205:176–183PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yao J, Fang X, Zhang C, Yang Y, Wang D, Chen Q, Zhong G (2020) Astragaloside IV attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling via the Notch signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep 23:1CrossRef Yao J, Fang X, Zhang C, Yang Y, Wang D, Chen Q, Zhong G (2020) Astragaloside IV attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling via the Notch signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep 23:1CrossRef
go back to reference You H, Wei L, Sun W-L, Wang L, Yang Z-L, Liu Y, Zheng K, Wang Y, Zhang W-J (2014) The green tea extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in adult rats. Int J Mol Med 34:92–102PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef You H, Wei L, Sun W-L, Wang L, Yang Z-L, Liu Y, Zheng K, Wang Y, Zhang W-J (2014) The green tea extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in adult rats. Int J Mol Med 34:92–102PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference You X, Jiang X, Zhang C, Jiang K, Zhao X, Guo T, Zhu X, Bao J, Dou H (2022) Dihydroartemisinin attenuates pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in rats by suppressing JAK2/STAT3 signaling. Aging 14:1110–1127PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef You X, Jiang X, Zhang C, Jiang K, Zhao X, Guo T, Zhu X, Bao J, Dou H (2022) Dihydroartemisinin attenuates pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in rats by suppressing JAK2/STAT3 signaling. Aging 14:1110–1127PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Yu H, Lin L, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Hu H (2020) Targeting NF-κB pathway for the therapy of diseases: mechanism and clinical study. Signal Transduct Target Ther 5:209PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Yu H, Lin L, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Hu H (2020) Targeting NF-κB pathway for the therapy of diseases: mechanism and clinical study. Signal Transduct Target Ther 5:209PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Yuan L, Zou C, Ge W, Liu Y, Hu B, Wang J, Lin B, Li Y, Ma E (2020) A novel cathepsin L inhibitor prevents the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Bioorg Chem 94:103417PubMedCrossRef Yuan L, Zou C, Ge W, Liu Y, Hu B, Wang J, Lin B, Li Y, Ma E (2020) A novel cathepsin L inhibitor prevents the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Bioorg Chem 94:103417PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zhan H, Huang F, Ma W, Zhao Z, Zhang H, Zhang C (2016) Protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats: involvement of caveolin-1 and TGF-beta1 signal pathway. Biol Pharm Bull 39:1284–1292PubMedCrossRef Zhan H, Huang F, Ma W, Zhao Z, Zhang H, Zhang C (2016) Protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats: involvement of caveolin-1 and TGF-beta1 signal pathway. Biol Pharm Bull 39:1284–1292PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zhang YE (2017) Non-smad signaling pathways of the TGF-β family. Cold Spring Harbor Perspect Biol 9:022129CrossRef Zhang YE (2017) Non-smad signaling pathways of the TGF-β family. Cold Spring Harbor Perspect Biol 9:022129CrossRef
go back to reference Zhang YQ, Liu YJ, Mao YF, Dong WW, Zhu XY, Jiang L (2015) Resveratrol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition and pulmonary fibrosis through suppression of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-beta1 signaling. Clin Nutr 34:752–760PubMedCrossRef Zhang YQ, Liu YJ, Mao YF, Dong WW, Zhu XY, Jiang L (2015) Resveratrol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition and pulmonary fibrosis through suppression of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-beta1 signaling. Clin Nutr 34:752–760PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zhang Z, Qu J, Zheng C, Zhang P, Zhou W, Cui W, Mo X, Li L, Xu L, Gao J (2018) Nrf2 antioxidant pathway suppresses Numb-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition during pulmonary fibrosis. Cell Death Dis 9:83PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zhang Z, Qu J, Zheng C, Zhang P, Zhou W, Cui W, Mo X, Li L, Xu L, Gao J (2018) Nrf2 antioxidant pathway suppresses Numb-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition during pulmonary fibrosis. Cell Death Dis 9:83PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Zhang Y, Lu P, Qin H, Zhang Y, Sun X, Song X, Liu J, Peng H, Liu Y, Nwafor EO, Li J, Liu Z (2021) Traditional Chinese medicine combined with pulmonary drug delivery system and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Rationale and therapeutic potential. Biomed Pharmacother 133:111072PubMedCrossRef Zhang Y, Lu P, Qin H, Zhang Y, Sun X, Song X, Liu J, Peng H, Liu Y, Nwafor EO, Li J, Liu Z (2021) Traditional Chinese medicine combined with pulmonary drug delivery system and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Rationale and therapeutic potential. Biomed Pharmacother 133:111072PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zhao H, Li C, Li L, Liu J, Gao Y, Mu K, Chen D, Lu A, Ren Y, Li Z (2020) Baicalin alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and fibroblast proliferation in rats via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep 21:2321–2334PubMedPubMedCentral Zhao H, Li C, Li L, Liu J, Gao Y, Mu K, Chen D, Lu A, Ren Y, Li Z (2020) Baicalin alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and fibroblast proliferation in rats via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep 21:2321–2334PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Zhou Y, Huang X, Hecker L, Kurundkar D, Kurundkar A, Liu H, Jin TH, Desai L, Bernard K, Thannickal VJ (2013) Inhibition of mechanosensitive signaling in myofibroblasts ameliorates experimental pulmonary fibrosis. J Clin Invest 123:1096–1108PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zhou Y, Huang X, Hecker L, Kurundkar D, Kurundkar A, Liu H, Jin TH, Desai L, Bernard K, Thannickal VJ (2013) Inhibition of mechanosensitive signaling in myofibroblasts ameliorates experimental pulmonary fibrosis. J Clin Invest 123:1096–1108PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Zhou YX, Zhang H, Peng C (2014) Puerarin: a review of pharmacological effects. Phytother Res 28:961–975PubMedCrossRef Zhou YX, Zhang H, Peng C (2014) Puerarin: a review of pharmacological effects. Phytother Res 28:961–975PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zhou Y, Li M, Shen T, Yang T, Shi G, Wei Y, Chen C, Wang D, Wang Y, Zhang T (2022) Celastrol targets cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated 1 to prevent fibroblast-myofibroblast transformation against pulmonary fibrosis. ACS Chem Biol 17:2734–2743PubMedCrossRef Zhou Y, Li M, Shen T, Yang T, Shi G, Wei Y, Chen C, Wang D, Wang Y, Zhang T (2022) Celastrol targets cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated 1 to prevent fibroblast-myofibroblast transformation against pulmonary fibrosis. ACS Chem Biol 17:2734–2743PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zhu T, Zhang W, Xiao M, Chen H, Jin H (2013) Protective role of andrographolide in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Int J Mol Sci 14:23581–23596PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zhu T, Zhang W, Xiao M, Chen H, Jin H (2013) Protective role of andrographolide in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Int J Mol Sci 14:23581–23596PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Zou J, Gao P, Hao X, Xu H, Zhan P, Liu X (2018) Recent progress in the structural modification and pharmacological activities of ligustrazine derivatives. Eur J Med Chem 147:150–162PubMedCrossRef Zou J, Gao P, Hao X, Xu H, Zhan P, Liu X (2018) Recent progress in the structural modification and pharmacological activities of ligustrazine derivatives. Eur J Med Chem 147:150–162PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zou M, Zhang G, Zou J, Liu Y, Liu B, Hu X, Cheng Z (2020) Inhibition of the ERK1/2-ubiquitous calpains pathway attenuates experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. Exp Cell Res 391:111886PubMedCrossRef Zou M, Zhang G, Zou J, Liu Y, Liu B, Hu X, Cheng Z (2020) Inhibition of the ERK1/2-ubiquitous calpains pathway attenuates experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. Exp Cell Res 391:111886PubMedCrossRef
Metadata
Title
Monomeric compounds from natural products for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis: a review
Authors
Zhuqing Li
Yanyong Yang
Fu Gao
Publication date
09-05-2024
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Published in
Inflammopharmacology
Print ISSN: 0925-4692
Electronic ISSN: 1568-5608
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-024-01485-0