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17-06-2024 | Intracranial Hypertension | Original work

The Effects of Head Elevation on Intracranial Pressure, Cerebral Perfusion Pressure, and Cerebral Oxygenation Among Patients with Acute Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Miguel Bertelli Ramos, João Pedro Einsfeld Britz, João Paulo Mota Telles, Gabriela Borges Nager, Giulia Isadora Cenci, Carla Bittencourt Rynkowski, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

Published in: Neurocritical Care

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Abstract

Background

Head elevation is recommended as a tier zero measure to decrease high intracranial pressure (ICP) in neurocritical patients. However, its quantitative effects on cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2), brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2), and arteriovenous difference of oxygen (AVDO2) are uncertain. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of head elevation on ICP, CPP, SjvO2, PbtO2, and AVDO2 among patients with acute brain injury.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library of studies comparing the effects of different degrees of head elevation on ICP, CPP, SjvO2, PbtO2, and AVDO2.

Results

A total of 25 articles were included in the systematic review. Of these, 16 provided quantitative data regarding outcomes of interest and underwent meta-analyses. The mean ICP of patients with acute brain injury was lower in group with 30° of head elevation than in the supine position group (mean difference [MD] − 5.58 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI] − 6.74 to − 4.41 mm Hg; p < 0.00001). The only comparison in which a greater degree of head elevation did not significantly reduce the ICP was 45° vs. 30°. The mean CPP remained similar between 30° of head elevation and supine position (MD − 2.48 mm Hg; 95% CI − 5.69 to 0.73 mm Hg; p = 0.13). Similar findings were observed in all other comparisons. The mean SjvO2 was similar between the 30° of head elevation and supine position groups (MD 0.32%; 95% CI − 1.67% to 2.32%; p = 0.75), as was the mean PbtO2 (MD − 1.50 mm Hg; 95% CI − 4.62 to 1.62 mm Hg; p = 0.36), and the mean AVDO2 (MD 0.06 µmol/L; 95% CI − 0.20 to 0.32 µmol/L; p = 0.65).The mean ICP of patients with traumatic brain injury was also lower with 30° of head elevation when compared to the supine position. There was no difference in the mean values of mean arterial pressure, CPP, SjvO2, and PbtO2 between these groups.

Conclusions

Increasing degrees of head elevation were associated, in general, with a lower ICP, whereas CPP and brain oxygenation parameters remained unchanged. The severe traumatic brain injury subanalysis found similar results.
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Metadata
Title
The Effects of Head Elevation on Intracranial Pressure, Cerebral Perfusion Pressure, and Cerebral Oxygenation Among Patients with Acute Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Authors
Miguel Bertelli Ramos
João Pedro Einsfeld Britz
João Paulo Mota Telles
Gabriela Borges Nager
Giulia Isadora Cenci
Carla Bittencourt Rynkowski
Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo
Publication date
17-06-2024
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Neurocritical Care
Print ISSN: 1541-6933
Electronic ISSN: 1556-0961
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12028-024-02020-3