Water intoxication is rarely seen in forensic practice and is typically associated with excessive water consumption, amphetamine intake, and child abuse. Iatrogenic water intoxication is rare but usually related to medical disputes. Here, we report a 44-year-old female was admitted to the hospital due to a 3-month history of excessive menstrual bleeding. B-ultrasound revealed multiple substantial intrauterine masses, leading to a diagnosis of multiple uterine fibroids. After admission, she underwent submucous myomectomy, endometrial resection, and transcervical resection of endometrial polyps. During the procedure, the patient suffered dizziness and chest tightness, her blood pressure decreased to 89/52 mmHg, and moist rales were heard in her both lungs; she died despite medical efforts. A forensic autopsy was performed and revealed severe pulmonary edema. Considering the patient’s clinical history, acute water intoxication was considered to be the cause of death. This highlights the need for forensic pathologists to be vigilant of postoperative water intoxication, a rare complication in obstetrics, to ensure accurate assessments.