We plan to evaluate the various variables associated with the complications of thyroidectomy performed at our department in the last 5 years. Medical records of the patients who underwent thyroidectomy during 2014–2018 were collected. Complications of hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy were analysed in terms of the demography, cytopathology and the extent of surgery. Student’s t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Fisher exact test and chi square test were applied to look for any significant associations. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. 123 patients were analysed (87 females, 38 males). Mean age was 38.3 years (range 11–71 years). Most common cytopathology was papillary carcinoma thyroid (Bethesda VI) − 43/123 (35%). 107 of these 123 patients underwent primary surgery, 10 underwent revision surgery while 6 underwent completion thyroidectomy. Seven patients incurred RLN palsy out of which 3 were temporary. RLN palsy was seen in only malignant cases (p < 0.05). Incidence was higher in T4a stage (p < 0.05). However, it had no association with a simultaneous central or lateral neck dissection. Hypocalcemia was seen in 22 patients (17.8%), out of whom 9 patients developed permanent hypocalcemia. It was seen significantly higher in patients undergoing central neck dissection (p < 0.05) and in malignant thyroid lesions (p < 0.05). Gender, age and the cytopathology had no bearing on RLN palsy and hypoparathyroidism. Malignant thyroid lesions had a significantly higher incidence of RLN palsy and hypoparathyroidism. A thorough anatomical knowledge can reduce the incidence of these complications.