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Open Access 09-05-2024 | Human Papillomavirus | Research

The prevalence of human papillomavirus in ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV positive and negative patients in a South African population

Authors: Loren N. Odendaal, Corinna Andreae, Micheline Sanderson-November, Dan Zaharie, Derrick P. Smit

Published in: Infection

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Abstract

Purpose

To assess the prevalence and subtypes of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia (OSSN) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive and negative patients in South Africa.

Basic procedures

This study was a single center retrospective cross-sectional study, conducted at Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa. We assessed 63 histopathologically confirmed OSSN formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks from 2015–2023. The presence of HPV was determined using the Hybrispot Direct Flow Chip Kit. Corresponding clinical data was retrieved from the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) central data warehouse.

Main findings

Of the confirmed OSSN samples, 66.7% tested positive for HPV (95% confidence interval [CI] 54–77.3%). Of the 42 HPV positive samples, 38 (90.5%) had one or more known genotypes detected and 4 had unknown genotypes. The most prevalent subtypes were HPV 11, 16 and 18 (found in 61.9%, 52.4% and 33.3% of HPV positive samples respectively). 88.9% of the lesions biopsied were from HIV positive patients, of whom 56.4% had a CD4 + count of < 200 cells/µL. A lower median CD4 + count was detected among HIV positive patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma compared to those with moderate dysplasia (p < 0.0198).

Conclusions

There is a high prevalence of HPV in OSSN in South Africa. Certain subtypes namely, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 may be more carcinogenic. HIV with HPV co-infection may be linked as a causative factor in the development of OSSN.
Literature
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Metadata
Title
The prevalence of human papillomavirus in ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV positive and negative patients in a South African population
Authors
Loren N. Odendaal
Corinna Andreae
Micheline Sanderson-November
Dan Zaharie
Derrick P. Smit
Publication date
09-05-2024
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
Infection
Print ISSN: 0300-8126
Electronic ISSN: 1439-0973
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-024-02289-8
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