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Published in: Clinical Neuroradiology 2/2024

29-12-2023 | Glioma | Original Article

Multiparametric Analysis Combining DSC-MR Perfusion and [18F]FET-PET is Superior to a Single Parameter Approach for Differentiation of Progressive Glioma from Radiation Necrosis

Authors: Jürgen Panholzer, Gertraud Malsiner-Walli, Bettina Grün, Ognian Kalev, Michael Sonnberger, Robert Pichler

Published in: Clinical Neuroradiology | Issue 2/2024

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Abstract

Purpose

Perfusion-weighted (PWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and O‑(2-[18F]fluoroethyl-)-l-tyrosine ([18F]FET) positron emission tomography (PET) are both useful for discrimination of progressive disease (PD) from radiation necrosis (RN) in patients with gliomas. Previous literature showed that the combined use of FET-PET and MRI-PWI is advantageous; hhowever the increased diagnostic performances were only modest compared to the use of a single modality. Hence, the goal of this study was to further explore the benefit of combining MRI-PWI and [18F]FET-PET for differentiation of PD from RN. Secondarily, we evaluated the usefulness of cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) as previous studies mainly examined cerebral blood volume (CBV).

Methods

In this single center study, we retrospectively identified patients with WHO grades II–IV gliomas with suspected tumor recurrence, presenting with ambiguous findings on structural MRI. For differentiation of PD from RN we used both MRI-PWI and [18F]FET-PET. Dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI-PWI provided normalized parameters derived from perfusion maps (r(relative)CBV, rCBF, rMTT, rTTP). Static [18F]FET-PET parameters including mean and maximum tumor to brain ratios (TBRmean, TBRmax) were calculated. Based on histopathology and radioclinical follow-up we diagnosed PD in 27 and RN in 10 cases. Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated for single and multiparametric models. The performances of single and multiparametric approaches were assessed with analysis of variance and cross-validation.

Results

After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included 37 patients in this study. Regarding the in-sample based approach, in single parameter analysis rTBRmean (AUC = 0.91, p < 0.001), rTBRmax (AUC = 0.89, p < 0.001), rTTP (AUC = 0.87, p < 0.001) and rCBVmean (AUC = 0.84, p < 0.001) were efficacious for discrimination of PD from RN. The rCBFmean and rMTT did not reach statistical significance. A classification model consisting of TBRmean, rCBVmean and rTTP achieved an AUC of 0.98 (p < 0.001), outperforming the use of rTBRmean alone, which was the single parametric approach with the highest AUC. Analysis of variance confirmed the superiority of the multiparametric approach over the single parameter one (p = 0.002). While cross-validation attributed the highest AUC value to the model consisting of TBRmean and rCBVmean, it also suggested that the addition of rTTP resulted in the highest accuracy. Overall, multiparametric models performed better than single parameter ones.

Conclusion

A multiparametric MRI-PWI and [18F]FET-PET model consisting of TBRmean, rCBVmean and PWI rTTP significantly outperformed the use of rTBRmean alone, which was the best single parameter approach. Secondarily, we firstly report the potential usefulness of PWI rTTP for discrimination of PD from RN in patients with glioma; however, for validation of our findings the prospective studies with larger patient samples are necessary.
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Metadata
Title
Multiparametric Analysis Combining DSC-MR Perfusion and [18F]FET-PET is Superior to a Single Parameter Approach for Differentiation of Progressive Glioma from Radiation Necrosis
Authors
Jürgen Panholzer
Gertraud Malsiner-Walli
Bettina Grün
Ognian Kalev
Michael Sonnberger
Robert Pichler
Publication date
29-12-2023
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
Clinical Neuroradiology / Issue 2/2024
Print ISSN: 1869-1439
Electronic ISSN: 1869-1447
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00062-023-01372-1

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