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Open Access 04-05-2024 | Gastric Cancer | Original Contribution

Association between fish and shellfish consumption, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and gastric cancer risk: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study

Authors: Mayo Hirabayashi, Calistus Wilunda, Utako Murai, Taiki Yamaji, Motoki Iwasaki, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane, Norie Sawada, for the JPHC Study Group

Published in: European Journal of Nutrition

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Abstract

Purpose

Fish and shellfish consumption is suggested to be a cancer-protective factor. However, studies investigating this association for gastric cancer, especially considering Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and atrophic gastritis (AG), are limited. We investigated gastric cancer risk associated with fish, shellfish, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) consumption among Japanese adults.

Methods

90,504 subjects enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) were followed until December 2013. Dietary intake data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for gastric cancer risk associated with fish and shellfish consumption and marine n-3 PUFAs (sum of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) using Cox proportional hazards models. Among those with avaliable data, we conducted a subgroup analysis taking H. pylori infection and AG status  into consideration.

Results

There were 2,701 gastric cancer cases during an average of 15 years of follow-up. We observed an increased gastric cancer risk for salted fish consumption for men [HR for fifth quintile versus first quintile 1.43 (95% CI 1.18–1.75)] and for women [HR 1.33 (95% CI 1.00–1.77)]. We observed a weak risk reduction trend for women as the intake of marine n-3 PUFAs increased (p-trend:0.07). When we included H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis status in the analysis, the associations diminished.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that salted fish increases gastric cancer risk for men and women, while marine n-3 PUFAs marginally decreases this risk among women in Japan.
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Metadata
Title
Association between fish and shellfish consumption, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and gastric cancer risk: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study
Authors
Mayo Hirabayashi
Calistus Wilunda
Utako Murai
Taiki Yamaji
Motoki Iwasaki
Manami Inoue
Shoichiro Tsugane
Norie Sawada
for the JPHC Study Group
Publication date
04-05-2024
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
European Journal of Nutrition
Print ISSN: 1436-6207
Electronic ISSN: 1436-6215
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-024-03343-9
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