In this review paper, graft failure rates of different graft types (hamstring tendon autografts, bone–patellar tendon–bone autografts, quadriceps tendon autografts and diverse allografts) that are used for surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament are compared and statistically analysed.
Literature search was conducted in PubMed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) criteria. A total of 194 studies, which reported graft failure rates of at least one of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction methods mentioned above, were included in this systematic review. To be able to compare studies with different follow-up periods, a yearly graft failure rate for each reconstruction group was calculated and then investigated for significant differences by using the Kruskal–Wallis test.
Overall, a total of 152,548 patients treated with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included in the calculations. Comparison of graft types showed that hamstring tendon autografts had a yearly graft failure rate of 1.70%, whereas the bone–patellar tendon–bone autograft group had 1.16%, the quadriceps tendon autograft group 0.72%, and the allografts 1.76%.
The findings of this meta-data study indicate that reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament using quadriceps tendon autografts, hamstring tendon autografts, patellar tendon autografts or allografts does not show significant differences in terms of graft failure rates.