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Published in: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 3/2024

16-11-2023 | Esophageal Cancer | Original Article

Mortality burden and future projections of major risk factors for esophageal cancer in China from 1990 to 2019

Authors: Guibin Wu, Qingxiang Wu, Juan Xu, Genhua Gao, Tingting Chen, Guowei Chen

Published in: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Issue 3/2024

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Abstract

Objective

This study, based on Global Burden of Disease (GBD) data, aimed to report the long-term trend in mortality rates caused by risk factors for esophageal cancer (EC) in China from 1990 to 2019 and predict the burden of EC mortality caused by these risk factors over the next 15 years.

Methods

We examined six risk factors that influenced EC mortality rates in China and their respective rankings. Furthermore, we analyzed the number of deaths and crude mortality rates (CMR) caused by these risk factors for both sexes and different age groups. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and the number of deaths across all age groups were also analyzed. Finally, we utilized the Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort (BAPC) model to predict the trends in ASMR burden caused by these risk factors in the future.

Results

From 1990 to 2019, the percentage changes in ASMR for EC caused by the six risk factors in China were as follows: smoking (− 33.4%), alcohol consumption (− 23.0%), low fruit intake (− 73.6%), low vegetable intake (− 96.0%), high Body Mass Index (BMI) (25.1%), and tobacco chewing (− 32.8%). In 2019, the top three risk factors contributing to EC ASMR in China were smoking, alcohol consumption, and high BMI. Overall, the ASMR for EC in China fluctuated and declined from 1990 to 2019. The most common risk factors for males were smoking and alcohol consumption, while low fruit intake and high BMI were the most common risk factors for females. The impact of these risk factors on EC mortality increased with age, except for the elderly population. BAPC analysis indicated that the influence of these risk factors on ASMR was expected to remain relatively stable in the next 15 years, suggesting a continued significant burden of EC.

Conclusion

The projected burden of EC mortality in China was expected to continue increasing steadily over the next 15 years, highlighting the pressing need for disease control measures. To alleviate this burden, targeted prevention and control policies addressing risk factors for EC such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and high BMI are necessary.
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Metadata
Title
Mortality burden and future projections of major risk factors for esophageal cancer in China from 1990 to 2019
Authors
Guibin Wu
Qingxiang Wu
Juan Xu
Genhua Gao
Tingting Chen
Guowei Chen
Publication date
16-11-2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Published in
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery / Issue 3/2024
Print ISSN: 1863-6705
Electronic ISSN: 1863-6713
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11748-023-01987-8

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