The purpose of this article is to highlight the risk of pseudoaneurysms formation after orthognathic surgery, their clinical features and management.
A case report of a 24-year-old man who suffered a pseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery after sagittal osteotomy during orthognathic is reported. After three bleeding episodes, a pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed with a computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and treated with an embolization of the internal maxillary artery with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) successfully.
Pseudoaneurysms derived from the external carotid artery are an uncommon complication of orthognathic surgery, especially related to sagittal osteotomy instead of LeFort I osteotomy.
Pseudoaneurysms derived from external carotid artery branches must be suspected when patients show multiple episodes of bleeding (epistaxis or through the surgical approach) within the first two weeks after orthognathic surgery. If so, vascular CT or angiography should be performed to rule out the presence of vascular injuries. In case a pseudoaneurysm is identified, vascular embolization with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate seems to be the best treatment if available. If this treatment is not available or bleeding cannot be controlled, surgical ligature of the injured vessel is a valid treatment.