Skip to main content
Top
Published in:

26-07-2023 | Ependymoma | Case-based Review

Review and update on pediatric ependymoma

Authors: Scott H. Boop, Nir Shimony, Frederick A. Boop

Published in: Child's Nervous System | Issue 10/2023

Login to get access

Abstract

Since our last Special Annual Issue dedicated to the topic of ependymoma in 2009, critical advancements have been made in the understanding of this disease which is largely confined to childhood. In the era of molecular profiling, the prior classification of ependymoma based on histology has become largely irrelevant, with multiple new subtypes of this disease now being described in the newest 2021 WHO CNS Tumor Classification System. Despite our advancements in understanding the underlying biology of these tumors, the mainstays of treatment—gross total surgical resection followed by confocal radiation therapy—have continued to yield the best treatment results across multiple studies and centers. Here, we provide an update on our understanding of the advancements made in tumor biology, surgical, and oncologic management of this disease. As we move into an era of more personalized medicine, it is critical to reflect on our historical understanding of different disease entities, to better understand the future directions of our treatments.
Literature
1.
go back to reference Boop FA, Sgouros S (2009) Intracranial ependymoma in children: current status and future trends on diagnosis and management. Childs Nerv Syst 25:1163–1165CrossRefPubMed Boop FA, Sgouros S (2009) Intracranial ependymoma in children: current status and future trends on diagnosis and management. Childs Nerv Syst 25:1163–1165CrossRefPubMed
2.
go back to reference Shim KW, Kim DS, Choi JU (2009) The history of ependymoma management. Childs Nerv Syst 25:1167–1183CrossRefPubMed Shim KW, Kim DS, Choi JU (2009) The history of ependymoma management. Childs Nerv Syst 25:1167–1183CrossRefPubMed
3.
go back to reference Bailey P, Cushing H (1926) A classification of the tumors of the glioma group on a histogenetic basis with a correlated study of prognosis/by Percival Bailey and Harvey Cushing. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia Bailey P, Cushing H (1926) A classification of the tumors of the glioma group on a histogenetic basis with a correlated study of prognosis/by Percival Bailey and Harvey Cushing. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia
4.
go back to reference Godfraind C (2009) Classification and controversies in pathology of ependymomas. Childs Nerv Syst 25:1185–1193CrossRefPubMed Godfraind C (2009) Classification and controversies in pathology of ependymomas. Childs Nerv Syst 25:1185–1193CrossRefPubMed
5.
go back to reference Merchant TE (2009) Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst 25:1261–1268CrossRefPubMed Merchant TE (2009) Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst 25:1261–1268CrossRefPubMed
6.
go back to reference Merchant TE, Mulhern RK, Krasin MJ, Kun LE, Williams T, Li C, Xiong X, Khan RB, Lustig RH, Boop FA, Sanford RA (2004) Preliminary results from a phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy and evaluation of radiation-related CNS effects for pediatric patients with localized ependymoma. J Clin Oncol 22:3156–3162CrossRefPubMed Merchant TE, Mulhern RK, Krasin MJ, Kun LE, Williams T, Li C, Xiong X, Khan RB, Lustig RH, Boop FA, Sanford RA (2004) Preliminary results from a phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy and evaluation of radiation-related CNS effects for pediatric patients with localized ependymoma. J Clin Oncol 22:3156–3162CrossRefPubMed
7.
go back to reference Howe GN, Edmonston DY, Dirks GC, Boop FA, Merchant TE (2023) Conformal radiation therapy for ependymoma at age ≤3 years: a 25-year experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 116:869–877CrossRefPubMed Howe GN, Edmonston DY, Dirks GC, Boop FA, Merchant TE (2023) Conformal radiation therapy for ependymoma at age ≤3 years: a 25-year experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 116:869–877CrossRefPubMed
8.
go back to reference Gajjar A, Pfister SM, Taylor MD, Gilbertson RJ (2014) Molecular insights into pediatric brain tumors have the potential to transform therapy. Clin Cancer Res 20:5630–5640CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Gajjar A, Pfister SM, Taylor MD, Gilbertson RJ (2014) Molecular insights into pediatric brain tumors have the potential to transform therapy. Clin Cancer Res 20:5630–5640CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
9.
go back to reference Taylor MD, Poppleton H, Fuller C, Su X, Liu Y, Jensen P, Magdaleno S, Dalton J, Calabrese C, Board J, Macdonald T, Rutka J, Guha A, Gajjar A, Curran T, Gilbertson RJ (2005) Radial glia cells are candidate stem cells of ependymoma. Cancer Cell 8:323–335CrossRefPubMed Taylor MD, Poppleton H, Fuller C, Su X, Liu Y, Jensen P, Magdaleno S, Dalton J, Calabrese C, Board J, Macdonald T, Rutka J, Guha A, Gajjar A, Curran T, Gilbertson RJ (2005) Radial glia cells are candidate stem cells of ependymoma. Cancer Cell 8:323–335CrossRefPubMed
10.
go back to reference Louis DN, Perry A, Wesseling P, Brat DJ, Cree IA, Figarella-Branger D, Hawkins C, Ng HK, Pfister SM, Reifenberger G, Soffietti R, von Deimling A, Ellison DW (2021) The 2021 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system: a summary. Neuro Oncol 23:1231–1251CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Louis DN, Perry A, Wesseling P, Brat DJ, Cree IA, Figarella-Branger D, Hawkins C, Ng HK, Pfister SM, Reifenberger G, Soffietti R, von Deimling A, Ellison DW (2021) The 2021 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system: a summary. Neuro Oncol 23:1231–1251CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
11.
go back to reference Johnson RA, Wright KD, Poppleton H, Mohankumar KM, Finkelstein D, Pounds SB, Rand V, Leary SE, White E, Eden C, Hogg T, Northcott P, Mack S, Neale G, Wang YD, Coyle B, Atkinson J, DeWire M, Kranenburg TA, Gillespie Y, Allen JC, Merchant T, Boop FA, Sanford RA, Gajjar A, Ellison DW, Taylor MD, Grundy RG, Gilbertson RJ (2010) Cross-species genomics matches driver mutations and cell compartments to model ependymoma. Nature 466:632–636CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Johnson RA, Wright KD, Poppleton H, Mohankumar KM, Finkelstein D, Pounds SB, Rand V, Leary SE, White E, Eden C, Hogg T, Northcott P, Mack S, Neale G, Wang YD, Coyle B, Atkinson J, DeWire M, Kranenburg TA, Gillespie Y, Allen JC, Merchant T, Boop FA, Sanford RA, Gajjar A, Ellison DW, Taylor MD, Grundy RG, Gilbertson RJ (2010) Cross-species genomics matches driver mutations and cell compartments to model ependymoma. Nature 466:632–636CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
12.
go back to reference Witt H, Mack SC, Ryzhova M, Bender S, Sill M, Isserlin R, Benner A, Hielscher T, Milde T, Remke M, Jones DT, Northcott PA, Garzia L, Bertrand KC, Wittmann A, Yao Y, Roberts SS, Massimi L, Van Meter T, Weiss WA, Gupta N, Grajkowska W, Lach B, Cho YJ, von Deimling A, Kulozik AE, Witt O, Bader GD, Hawkins CE, Tabori U, Guha A, Rutka JT, Lichter P, Korshunov A, Taylor MD, Pfister SM (2011) Delineation of two clinically and molecularly distinct subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma. Cancer Cell 20:143–157CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Witt H, Mack SC, Ryzhova M, Bender S, Sill M, Isserlin R, Benner A, Hielscher T, Milde T, Remke M, Jones DT, Northcott PA, Garzia L, Bertrand KC, Wittmann A, Yao Y, Roberts SS, Massimi L, Van Meter T, Weiss WA, Gupta N, Grajkowska W, Lach B, Cho YJ, von Deimling A, Kulozik AE, Witt O, Bader GD, Hawkins CE, Tabori U, Guha A, Rutka JT, Lichter P, Korshunov A, Taylor MD, Pfister SM (2011) Delineation of two clinically and molecularly distinct subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma. Cancer Cell 20:143–157CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
13.
go back to reference Mendrzyk F, Korshunov A, Benner A, Toedt G, Pfister S, Radlwimmer B, Lichter P (2006) Identification of gains on 1q and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression as independent prognostic markers in intracranial ependymoma. Clin Cancer Res 12:2070–2079CrossRefPubMed Mendrzyk F, Korshunov A, Benner A, Toedt G, Pfister S, Radlwimmer B, Lichter P (2006) Identification of gains on 1q and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression as independent prognostic markers in intracranial ependymoma. Clin Cancer Res 12:2070–2079CrossRefPubMed
14.
go back to reference Ritzmann TA, Chapman RJ, Kilday JP, Thorp N, Modena P, Dineen RA, Macarthur D, Mallucci C, Jaspan T, Pajtler KW, Giagnacovo M, Jacques TS, Paine SML, Ellison DW, Bouffet E, Grundy RG (2022) SIOP Ependymoma I: final results, long-term follow-up, and molecular analysis of the trial cohort-A BIOMECA consortium study. Neuro Oncol 24:936–948CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Ritzmann TA, Chapman RJ, Kilday JP, Thorp N, Modena P, Dineen RA, Macarthur D, Mallucci C, Jaspan T, Pajtler KW, Giagnacovo M, Jacques TS, Paine SML, Ellison DW, Bouffet E, Grundy RG (2022) SIOP Ependymoma I: final results, long-term follow-up, and molecular analysis of the trial cohort-A BIOMECA consortium study. Neuro Oncol 24:936–948CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
15.
go back to reference Baroni LV, Sundaresan L, Heled A, Coltin H, Pajtler KW, Lin T, Merchant TE, McLendon R, Faria C, Buntine M, White CL, Pfister SM, Gilbert MR, Armstrong TS, Bouffet E, Kumar S, Taylor MD, Aldape KD, Ellison DW, Gottardo NG, Kool M, Korshunov A, Hansford JR, Ramaswamy V (2021) Ultra high-risk PFA ependymoma is characterized by loss of chromosome 6q. Neuro Oncol 23:1360–1370CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Baroni LV, Sundaresan L, Heled A, Coltin H, Pajtler KW, Lin T, Merchant TE, McLendon R, Faria C, Buntine M, White CL, Pfister SM, Gilbert MR, Armstrong TS, Bouffet E, Kumar S, Taylor MD, Aldape KD, Ellison DW, Gottardo NG, Kool M, Korshunov A, Hansford JR, Ramaswamy V (2021) Ultra high-risk PFA ependymoma is characterized by loss of chromosome 6q. Neuro Oncol 23:1360–1370CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
16.
go back to reference Jenseit A, Camgöz A, Pfister SM, Kool M (2022) EZHIP: a new piece of the puzzle towards understanding pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma. Acta Neuropathol 143:1–13CrossRefPubMed Jenseit A, Camgöz A, Pfister SM, Kool M (2022) EZHIP: a new piece of the puzzle towards understanding pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma. Acta Neuropathol 143:1–13CrossRefPubMed
17.
go back to reference Pajtler KW, Mack SC, Ramaswamy V, Smith CA, Witt H, Smith A, Hansford JR, von Hoff K, Wright KD, Hwang E, Frappaz D, Kanemura Y, Massimino M, Faure-Conter C, Modena P, Tabori U, Warren KE, Holland EC, Ichimura K, Giangaspero F, Castel D, von Deimling A, Kool M, Dirks PB, Grundy RG, Foreman NK, Gajjar A, Korshunov A, Finlay J, Gilbertson RJ, Ellison DW, Aldape KD, Merchant TE, Bouffet E, Pfister SM, Taylor MD (2017) The current consensus on the clinical management of intracranial ependymoma and its distinct molecular variants. Acta Neuropathol 133:5–12CrossRefPubMed Pajtler KW, Mack SC, Ramaswamy V, Smith CA, Witt H, Smith A, Hansford JR, von Hoff K, Wright KD, Hwang E, Frappaz D, Kanemura Y, Massimino M, Faure-Conter C, Modena P, Tabori U, Warren KE, Holland EC, Ichimura K, Giangaspero F, Castel D, von Deimling A, Kool M, Dirks PB, Grundy RG, Foreman NK, Gajjar A, Korshunov A, Finlay J, Gilbertson RJ, Ellison DW, Aldape KD, Merchant TE, Bouffet E, Pfister SM, Taylor MD (2017) The current consensus on the clinical management of intracranial ependymoma and its distinct molecular variants. Acta Neuropathol 133:5–12CrossRefPubMed
18.
go back to reference Ellison DW, Aldape KD, Capper D, Fouladi M, Gilbert MR, Gilbertson RJ, Hawkins C, Merchant TE, Pajtler K, Venneti S, Louis DN (2020) cIMPACT-NOW update 7: advancing the molecular classification of ependymal tumors. Brain Pathol 30:863–866CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Ellison DW, Aldape KD, Capper D, Fouladi M, Gilbert MR, Gilbertson RJ, Hawkins C, Merchant TE, Pajtler K, Venneti S, Louis DN (2020) cIMPACT-NOW update 7: advancing the molecular classification of ependymal tumors. Brain Pathol 30:863–866CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
19.
go back to reference Pajtler KW, Wen J, Sill M, Lin T, Orisme W, Tang B, Hübner JM, Ramaswamy V, Jia S, Dalton JD, Haupfear K, Rogers HA, Punchihewa C, Lee R, Easton J, Wu G, Ritzmann TA, Chapman R, Chavez L, Boop FA, Klimo P, Sabin ND, Ogg R, Mack SC, Freibaum BD, Kim HJ, Witt H, Jones DTW, Vo B, Gajjar A, Pounds S, Onar-Thomas A, Roussel MF, Zhang J, Taylor JP, Merchant TE, Grundy R, Tatevossian RG, Taylor MD, Pfister SM, Korshunov A, Kool M, Ellison DW (2018) Molecular heterogeneity and CXorf67 alterations in posterior fossa group A (PFA) ependymomas. Acta Neuropathol 136:211–226CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Pajtler KW, Wen J, Sill M, Lin T, Orisme W, Tang B, Hübner JM, Ramaswamy V, Jia S, Dalton JD, Haupfear K, Rogers HA, Punchihewa C, Lee R, Easton J, Wu G, Ritzmann TA, Chapman R, Chavez L, Boop FA, Klimo P, Sabin ND, Ogg R, Mack SC, Freibaum BD, Kim HJ, Witt H, Jones DTW, Vo B, Gajjar A, Pounds S, Onar-Thomas A, Roussel MF, Zhang J, Taylor JP, Merchant TE, Grundy R, Tatevossian RG, Taylor MD, Pfister SM, Korshunov A, Kool M, Ellison DW (2018) Molecular heterogeneity and CXorf67 alterations in posterior fossa group A (PFA) ependymomas. Acta Neuropathol 136:211–226CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
20.
go back to reference Pagès M, Pajtler KW, Puget S, Castel D, Boddaert N, Tauziède-Espariat A, Picot S, Debily MA, Kool M, Capper D, Sainte-Rose C, Chrétien F, Pfister SM, Pietsch T, Grill J, Varlet P, Andreiuolo F (2019) Diagnostics of pediatric supratentorial RELA ependymomas: integration of information from histopathology, genetics, DNA methylation and imaging. Brain Pathol 29:325–335CrossRefPubMed Pagès M, Pajtler KW, Puget S, Castel D, Boddaert N, Tauziède-Espariat A, Picot S, Debily MA, Kool M, Capper D, Sainte-Rose C, Chrétien F, Pfister SM, Pietsch T, Grill J, Varlet P, Andreiuolo F (2019) Diagnostics of pediatric supratentorial RELA ependymomas: integration of information from histopathology, genetics, DNA methylation and imaging. Brain Pathol 29:325–335CrossRefPubMed
21.
go back to reference Zheng T, Ghasemi DR, Okonechnikov K, Korshunov A, Sill M, Maass KK, Goncalves B, da Silva P, Ryzhova M, Gojo J, Stichel D, Arabzade A, Kupp R, Benzel J, Taya S, Adachi T, Shiraishi R, Gerber NU, Sturm D, Ecker J, Sievers P, Selt F, Chapman R, Haberler C, Figarella-Branger D, Reifenberger G, Fleischhack G, Rutkowski S, Donson AM, Ramaswamy V, Capper D, Ellison DW, Herold-Mende CC, Schüller U, Brandner S, Driever PH, Kros JM, Snuderl M, Milde T, Grundy RG, Hoshino M, Mack SC, Gilbertson RJ, Jones DTW, Kool M, von Deimling A, Pfister SM, Sahm F, Kawauchi D, Pajtler KW (2021) Cross-species genomics reveals oncogenic dependencies in ZFTA/C11orf95 fusion-positive supratentorial ependymomas. Cancer Discov 11:2230–2247CrossRefPubMed Zheng T, Ghasemi DR, Okonechnikov K, Korshunov A, Sill M, Maass KK, Goncalves B, da Silva P, Ryzhova M, Gojo J, Stichel D, Arabzade A, Kupp R, Benzel J, Taya S, Adachi T, Shiraishi R, Gerber NU, Sturm D, Ecker J, Sievers P, Selt F, Chapman R, Haberler C, Figarella-Branger D, Reifenberger G, Fleischhack G, Rutkowski S, Donson AM, Ramaswamy V, Capper D, Ellison DW, Herold-Mende CC, Schüller U, Brandner S, Driever PH, Kros JM, Snuderl M, Milde T, Grundy RG, Hoshino M, Mack SC, Gilbertson RJ, Jones DTW, Kool M, von Deimling A, Pfister SM, Sahm F, Kawauchi D, Pajtler KW (2021) Cross-species genomics reveals oncogenic dependencies in ZFTA/C11orf95 fusion-positive supratentorial ependymomas. Cancer Discov 11:2230–2247CrossRefPubMed
22.
go back to reference Lillard JC, Venable GT, Khan NR, Tatevossian RG, Dalton J, Vaughn BN, Klimo P (2019) Pediatric supratentorial ependymoma: surgical, clinical, and molecular analysis. Neurosurgery 85:41–49CrossRefPubMed Lillard JC, Venable GT, Khan NR, Tatevossian RG, Dalton J, Vaughn BN, Klimo P (2019) Pediatric supratentorial ependymoma: surgical, clinical, and molecular analysis. Neurosurgery 85:41–49CrossRefPubMed
23.
go back to reference Pejavar S, Polley MY, Rosenberg-Wohl S, Chennupati S, Prados MD, Berger MS, Banerjee A, Gupta N, Haas-Kogan D (2012) Pediatric intracranial ependymoma: the roles of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. J Neurooncol 106:367–375CrossRefPubMed Pejavar S, Polley MY, Rosenberg-Wohl S, Chennupati S, Prados MD, Berger MS, Banerjee A, Gupta N, Haas-Kogan D (2012) Pediatric intracranial ependymoma: the roles of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. J Neurooncol 106:367–375CrossRefPubMed
24.
go back to reference Figarella-Branger D, Lechapt-Zalcman E, Tabouret E, Jünger S, de Paula AM, Bouvier C, Colin C, Jouvet A, Forest F, Andreiuolo F, Quintin-Roue I, Machet MC, Heitzmann A, Milin S, Sevestre H, Godfraind C, Labrousse F, Metellus P, Scavarda D, Pietsch T (2016) Supratentorial clear cell ependymomas with branching capillaries demonstrate characteristic clinicopathological features and pathological activation of nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. Neuro Oncol 18:919–927CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Figarella-Branger D, Lechapt-Zalcman E, Tabouret E, Jünger S, de Paula AM, Bouvier C, Colin C, Jouvet A, Forest F, Andreiuolo F, Quintin-Roue I, Machet MC, Heitzmann A, Milin S, Sevestre H, Godfraind C, Labrousse F, Metellus P, Scavarda D, Pietsch T (2016) Supratentorial clear cell ependymomas with branching capillaries demonstrate characteristic clinicopathological features and pathological activation of nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. Neuro Oncol 18:919–927CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
25.
go back to reference Pajtler KW, Witt H, Sill M, Jones DT, Hovestadt V, Kratochwil F, Wani K, Tatevossian R, Punchihewa C, Johann P, Reimand J, Warnatz HJ, Ryzhova M, Mack S, Ramaswamy V, Capper D, Schweizer L, Sieber L, Wittmann A, Huang Z, van Sluis P, Volckmann R, Koster J, Versteeg R, Fults D, Toledano H, Avigad S, Hoffman LM, Donson AM, Foreman N, Hewer E, Zitterbart K, Gilbert M, Armstrong TS, Gupta N, Allen JC, Karajannis MA, Zagzag D, Hasselblatt M, Kulozik AE, Witt O, Collins VP, von Hoff K, Rutkowski S, Pietsch T, Bader G, Yaspo ML, von Deimling A, Lichter P, Taylor MD, Gilbertson R, Ellison DW, Aldape K, Korshunov A, Kool M, Pfister SM (2015) Molecular classification of ependymal tumors across all CNS compartments, histopathological grades, and age groups. Cancer Cell 27:728–743CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Pajtler KW, Witt H, Sill M, Jones DT, Hovestadt V, Kratochwil F, Wani K, Tatevossian R, Punchihewa C, Johann P, Reimand J, Warnatz HJ, Ryzhova M, Mack S, Ramaswamy V, Capper D, Schweizer L, Sieber L, Wittmann A, Huang Z, van Sluis P, Volckmann R, Koster J, Versteeg R, Fults D, Toledano H, Avigad S, Hoffman LM, Donson AM, Foreman N, Hewer E, Zitterbart K, Gilbert M, Armstrong TS, Gupta N, Allen JC, Karajannis MA, Zagzag D, Hasselblatt M, Kulozik AE, Witt O, Collins VP, von Hoff K, Rutkowski S, Pietsch T, Bader G, Yaspo ML, von Deimling A, Lichter P, Taylor MD, Gilbertson R, Ellison DW, Aldape K, Korshunov A, Kool M, Pfister SM (2015) Molecular classification of ependymal tumors across all CNS compartments, histopathological grades, and age groups. Cancer Cell 27:728–743CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
26.
go back to reference Malhotra AK, Nobre LF, Ibrahim GM, Kulkarni AV, Drake JM, Rutka JT, Bouffet E, Taylor MD, Tsang D, Ramaswamy V, Dirks PB, Dewan MC (2023) Outcomes following management of relapsed pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era. J Neurooncol 161:573–582CrossRefPubMed Malhotra AK, Nobre LF, Ibrahim GM, Kulkarni AV, Drake JM, Rutka JT, Bouffet E, Taylor MD, Tsang D, Ramaswamy V, Dirks PB, Dewan MC (2023) Outcomes following management of relapsed pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era. J Neurooncol 161:573–582CrossRefPubMed
27.
go back to reference Massimino M, Solero CL, Garrè ML, Biassoni V, Cama A, Genitori L, Di Rocco C, Sardi I, Viscardi E, Modena P, Potepan P, Barra S, Scarzello G, Galassi E, Giangaspero F, Antonelli M, Gandola L (2011) Second-look surgery for ependymoma: the Italian experience. J Neurosurg Pediatr 8:246–250CrossRefPubMed Massimino M, Solero CL, Garrè ML, Biassoni V, Cama A, Genitori L, Di Rocco C, Sardi I, Viscardi E, Modena P, Potepan P, Barra S, Scarzello G, Galassi E, Giangaspero F, Antonelli M, Gandola L (2011) Second-look surgery for ependymoma: the Italian experience. J Neurosurg Pediatr 8:246–250CrossRefPubMed
28.
go back to reference Van Poppel M, Klimo P Jr, Dewire M, Sanford RA, Boop F, Broniscer A, Wright K, Gajjar AJ (2011) Resection of infantile brain tumors after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: the St. Jude experience J Neurosurg Pediatr 8:251–256CrossRefPubMed Van Poppel M, Klimo P Jr, Dewire M, Sanford RA, Boop F, Broniscer A, Wright K, Gajjar AJ (2011) Resection of infantile brain tumors after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: the St. Jude experience J Neurosurg Pediatr 8:251–256CrossRefPubMed
29.
go back to reference Adolph JE, Fleischhack G, Mikasch R, Zeller J, Warmuth-Metz M, Bison B, Mynarek M, Rutkowski S, Schüller U, von Hoff K, Obrecht D, Pietsch T, Pfister SM, Pajtler KW, Witt O, Witt H, Kortmann RD, Timmermann B, Krauß J, Frühwald MC, Faldum A, Kwiecien R, Bode U, Tippelt S (2021) Local and systemic therapy of recurrent ependymoma in children and adolescents: short- and long-term results of the E-HIT-REZ 2005 study. Neuro Oncol 23:1012–1023CrossRefPubMed Adolph JE, Fleischhack G, Mikasch R, Zeller J, Warmuth-Metz M, Bison B, Mynarek M, Rutkowski S, Schüller U, von Hoff K, Obrecht D, Pietsch T, Pfister SM, Pajtler KW, Witt O, Witt H, Kortmann RD, Timmermann B, Krauß J, Frühwald MC, Faldum A, Kwiecien R, Bode U, Tippelt S (2021) Local and systemic therapy of recurrent ependymoma in children and adolescents: short- and long-term results of the E-HIT-REZ 2005 study. Neuro Oncol 23:1012–1023CrossRefPubMed
30.
go back to reference Ritzmann TA, Rogers HA, Paine SML, Storer LCD, Jacques TS, Chapman RJ, Ellison D, Donson AM, Foreman NK, Grundy RG (2020) A retrospective analysis of recurrent pediatric ependymoma reveals extremely poor survival and ineffectiveness of current treatments across central nervous system locations and molecular subgroups. Pediatr Blood Cancer 67:e28426CrossRefPubMed Ritzmann TA, Rogers HA, Paine SML, Storer LCD, Jacques TS, Chapman RJ, Ellison D, Donson AM, Foreman NK, Grundy RG (2020) A retrospective analysis of recurrent pediatric ependymoma reveals extremely poor survival and ineffectiveness of current treatments across central nervous system locations and molecular subgroups. Pediatr Blood Cancer 67:e28426CrossRefPubMed
31.
go back to reference Massimino M, Gandola L, Giangaspero F, Sandri A, Valagussa P, Perilongo G, Garrè ML, Ricardi U, Forni M, Genitori L, Scarzello G, Spreafico F, Barra S, Mascarin M, Pollo B, Gardiman M, Cama A, Navarria P, Brisigotti M, Collini P, Balter R, Fidani P, Stefanelli M, Burnelli R, Potepan P, Podda M, Sotti G, Madon E (2004) Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood ependymoma: final results of the first prospective AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia-Oncologia Pediatrica) study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:1336–1345CrossRefPubMed Massimino M, Gandola L, Giangaspero F, Sandri A, Valagussa P, Perilongo G, Garrè ML, Ricardi U, Forni M, Genitori L, Scarzello G, Spreafico F, Barra S, Mascarin M, Pollo B, Gardiman M, Cama A, Navarria P, Brisigotti M, Collini P, Balter R, Fidani P, Stefanelli M, Burnelli R, Potepan P, Podda M, Sotti G, Madon E (2004) Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood ependymoma: final results of the first prospective AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia-Oncologia Pediatrica) study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:1336–1345CrossRefPubMed
32.
go back to reference Merchant TE, Li C, Xiong X, Kun LE, Boop FA, Sanford RA (2009) Conformal radiotherapy after surgery for paediatric ependymoma: a prospective study. Lancet Oncol 10:258–266CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Merchant TE, Li C, Xiong X, Kun LE, Boop FA, Sanford RA (2009) Conformal radiotherapy after surgery for paediatric ependymoma: a prospective study. Lancet Oncol 10:258–266CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
33.
go back to reference Schroeder TM, Chintagumpala M, Okcu MF, Chiu JK, Teh BS, Woo SY, Paulino AC (2008) Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:987–993CrossRefPubMed Schroeder TM, Chintagumpala M, Okcu MF, Chiu JK, Teh BS, Woo SY, Paulino AC (2008) Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:987–993CrossRefPubMed
34.
go back to reference Merchant TE, Bendel AE, Sabin ND, Burger PC, Shaw DW, Chang E, Wu S, Zhou T, Eisenstat DD, Foreman NK, Fuller CE, Anderson ET, Hukin J, Lau CC, Pollack IF, Laningham FH, Lustig RH, Armstrong FD, Handler MH, Williams-Hughes C, Kessel S, Kocak M, Ellison DW, Ramaswamy V (2019) Conformal radiation therapy for pediatric ependymoma, chemotherapy for incompletely resected ependymoma, and observation for completely resected, supratentorial ependymoma. J Clin Oncol 37:974–983CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Merchant TE, Bendel AE, Sabin ND, Burger PC, Shaw DW, Chang E, Wu S, Zhou T, Eisenstat DD, Foreman NK, Fuller CE, Anderson ET, Hukin J, Lau CC, Pollack IF, Laningham FH, Lustig RH, Armstrong FD, Handler MH, Williams-Hughes C, Kessel S, Kocak M, Ellison DW, Ramaswamy V (2019) Conformal radiation therapy for pediatric ependymoma, chemotherapy for incompletely resected ependymoma, and observation for completely resected, supratentorial ependymoma. J Clin Oncol 37:974–983CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
35.
go back to reference Upadhyaya SA, Robinson GW, Onar-Thomas A, Orr BA, Billups CA, Bowers DC, Bendel AE, Hassall T, Crawford JR, Partap S, Fisher PG, Tatevossian RG, Seah T, Qaddoumi IA, Vinitsky A, Armstrong GT, Sabin ND, Tinkle CL, Klimo P, Indelicato DJ, Boop FA, Merchant TE, Ellison DW, Gajjar A (2019) Molecular grouping and outcomes of young children with newly diagnosed ependymoma treated on the multi-institutional SJYC07 trial. Neuro Oncol 21:1319–1330CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Upadhyaya SA, Robinson GW, Onar-Thomas A, Orr BA, Billups CA, Bowers DC, Bendel AE, Hassall T, Crawford JR, Partap S, Fisher PG, Tatevossian RG, Seah T, Qaddoumi IA, Vinitsky A, Armstrong GT, Sabin ND, Tinkle CL, Klimo P, Indelicato DJ, Boop FA, Merchant TE, Ellison DW, Gajjar A (2019) Molecular grouping and outcomes of young children with newly diagnosed ependymoma treated on the multi-institutional SJYC07 trial. Neuro Oncol 21:1319–1330CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
36.
go back to reference Mak DY, Laperriere N, Ramaswamy V, Bouffet E, Murray JC, McNall-Knapp RY, Bielamowicz K, Paulino AC, Zaky W, McGovern SL, Okcu MF, Tabori U, Atwi D, Dirks PB, Taylor MD, Tsang DS, Bavle A (2021) Reevaluating surgery and re-irradiation for locally recurrent pediatric ependymoma-a multi-institutional study. Neurooncol Adv 3:vdab158 Mak DY, Laperriere N, Ramaswamy V, Bouffet E, Murray JC, McNall-Knapp RY, Bielamowicz K, Paulino AC, Zaky W, McGovern SL, Okcu MF, Tabori U, Atwi D, Dirks PB, Taylor MD, Tsang DS, Bavle A (2021) Reevaluating surgery and re-irradiation for locally recurrent pediatric ependymoma-a multi-institutional study. Neurooncol Adv 3:vdab158
37.
go back to reference Tsang DS, Burghen E, Klimo P Jr, Boop FA, Ellison DW, Merchant TE (2018) outcomes after reirradiation for recurrent pediatric intracranial ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 100:507–515CrossRefPubMed Tsang DS, Burghen E, Klimo P Jr, Boop FA, Ellison DW, Merchant TE (2018) outcomes after reirradiation for recurrent pediatric intracranial ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 100:507–515CrossRefPubMed
38.
go back to reference Wang E, Gutkin PM, Oh J, Pollom E, Soltys SG, Grant GA, Prolo LM, Chang S, Li G, Fisher PG, Partap S, Campen CJ, Gibbs IC, Hiniker SM (2022) Stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent pediatric brain tumors: clinical outcomes and toxicity. Neurosurg Focus 53:E2CrossRefPubMed Wang E, Gutkin PM, Oh J, Pollom E, Soltys SG, Grant GA, Prolo LM, Chang S, Li G, Fisher PG, Partap S, Campen CJ, Gibbs IC, Hiniker SM (2022) Stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent pediatric brain tumors: clinical outcomes and toxicity. Neurosurg Focus 53:E2CrossRefPubMed
39.
go back to reference Merchant TE, Boop FA, Kun LE, Sanford RA (2008) A retrospective study of surgery and reirradiation for recurrent ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:87–97CrossRefPubMed Merchant TE, Boop FA, Kun LE, Sanford RA (2008) A retrospective study of surgery and reirradiation for recurrent ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:87–97CrossRefPubMed
Metadata
Title
Review and update on pediatric ependymoma
Authors
Scott H. Boop
Nir Shimony
Frederick A. Boop
Publication date
26-07-2023
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
Child's Nervous System / Issue 10/2023
Print ISSN: 0256-7040
Electronic ISSN: 1433-0350
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-023-06091-z

Other articles of this Issue 10/2023

Child's Nervous System 10/2023 Go to the issue