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08-06-2024 | Research

Effect of endoscopic endonasal skull base approaches on olfactory function and facial development in children

Authors: Bilal Abbasoglu, Hazan Basak, Bahir Mete, Elif Gokalp, Murat Zaimoglu, Suha Beton, Cem Meco, Gokmen Kahilogulları

Published in: Child's Nervous System

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Abstract

Introduction

Endoscopic approaches for skull base pathologies are increasingly being performed, and the subsequent complications, especially in the long term, have also been partially clarified. However, there is no information on the effects of endoscopic endonasal skull base surgeries (EESBS) in children on odor and facial development in parallel with long-term development. We conducted this study to investigate postoperative olfactory function and facial development in pediatric patients who underwent skull base surgery using the endoscopic endonasal method.

Methods

We evaluated the smell test, sinonasal symptoms, and facial development of pediatric patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery after long-term follow-up. Odor was evaluated using the “Sniffin' Sticks” test kit, which assessed the T (odor threshold), D (odor discrimination), and I (odor identification) parameters. Sinonasal symptoms were evaluated using the SNOT-22 (sinus-nose outcome test) questionnaire. SNA (sella-nasion-A point), SNB (sella-nasion-B point), and ANB (A point-nasion-B point) angles were calculated from maxillofacial tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) to evaluate facial development. Data were compared with those of the healthy control group.

Results

We included 30 patients comprising 19 (63.3%) boys and 11 (36.7%) girls, with no age difference between case and control groups. The mean follow-up period was 7 years. Odor test data, cephalometric measurements, and SNOT-22 analysis results showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusion

To our knowledge, this is a comprehensive study with the longest follow-up period in terms of evaluation of facial development after EESBS in children to analyze odor using the Sniffin' Sticks test kit and the quality of life using SNOT-22. Olfactory function, facial development, and quality of life remained unaffected after long-term follow-up after EESBS  in children. Although this surgical approach is minimally invasive, we recommend considering the possibility of complications, and the procedure should be performed by an experienced surgical team with adequate equipment.
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Metadata
Title
Effect of endoscopic endonasal skull base approaches on olfactory function and facial development in children
Authors
Bilal Abbasoglu
Hazan Basak
Bahir Mete
Elif Gokalp
Murat Zaimoglu
Suha Beton
Cem Meco
Gokmen Kahilogulları
Publication date
08-06-2024
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
Child's Nervous System
Print ISSN: 0256-7040
Electronic ISSN: 1433-0350
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-024-06446-0