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Open Access 26-07-2023 | Review Article

Dried Blood Spots—A Platform for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) and Drug/Disease Response Monitoring (DRM)

Authors: Nur Nabihah Binte Zailani, Paul Chi-Lui Ho

Published in: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Issue 5/2023

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Abstract

This review provides an overview on the current applications of dried blood spots (DBS) as matrices for therapeutic drug (TDM) and drug or disease response monitoring (DRM). Compared with conventional methods using plasma/serum, DBS offers several advantages, including minimally invasiveness, a small blood volume requirement, reduced biohazardous risk, and improved sample stability. Numerous assays utilising DBS for TDM have been reported in the literature over the past decade, covering a wide range of therapeutic drugs. Several factors can affect the accuracy and reliability of the DBS sampling method, including haematocrit (HCT), blood volume, sampling paper and chromatographic effects. It is crucial to evaluate the correlation between DBS concentrations and conventional plasma/serum concentrations, as the latter has traditionally been used for clinical decision. The feasibility of using DBS sampling method as an option for home-based TDM is also discussed. Furthermore, DBS has also been used as a matrix for monitoring the drug or disease responses (DRM) through various approaches such as genotyping, viral load measurement, assessment of inflammatory factors, and more recently, metabolic profiling. Although this research is still in the development stage, advancements in technology are expected to lead to the identification of surrogate biomarkers for drug treatment in DBS and a better understanding of the correlation between DBS drug levels and drug responses. This will make DBS a valuable matrix for TDM and DRM, facilitating the achievement of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic correlations and enabling personalised therapy.
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Metadata
Title
Dried Blood Spots—A Platform for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) and Drug/Disease Response Monitoring (DRM)
Authors
Nur Nabihah Binte Zailani
Paul Chi-Lui Ho
Publication date
26-07-2023
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Published in
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics / Issue 5/2023
Print ISSN: 0378-7966
Electronic ISSN: 2107-0180
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13318-023-00846-4

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