Skip to main content
Top

Open Access 17-06-2024 | Dementia | Original Article

The False Recognition Test, a new tool for the assessment of false memories, with normative data from an Italian sample

Authors: Francesco Panico, Laura Catalano, Laura Sagliano, Luigi Trojano

Published in: Neurological Sciences

Login to get access

Abstract

Introduction

False memory can be defined as remembering something that did not happen. To a certain extent it is a normal phenomenon, but its occurrence seems to increase in healthy and pathological aging, possibly providing relevant clues on some clinical conditions in the spectrum of dementia. We adapted a well-established Deed-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, frequently used in experimental contexts, to devise a new neuropsychological assessment tool, the False Recognition Test (FRT), that can investigate classical facets of episodic memory performance (i.e. free recall and recognition), and assess proneness to produce semantically related and non-semantic false memories. Here we describe the FRT and provide normative data and correction grids to consider the possible effects of age, gender, and education on the FRT scores.

Method

Two-hundred and thirty-two Italian healthy individuals (99 male) aged 18–91 years, with different educational levels (from primary to university) underwent the FRT, together with validated tests for cognitive screening and episodic memory assessment and one scale for depression.

Results

Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on FRT. From the derived linear equations, we provide correction grids for the raw scores of the FRT, and equivalent scores estimated using a nonparametric method. Correlational analysis showed significant associations between FRT subscores and cognitive, executive and memory functions, and depression.

Conclusion

The FRT may constitute a useful instrument for both clinical and research purposes.
Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Literature
10.
go back to reference Roediger HL, McDermott KB (1995) Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 21:803CrossRef Roediger HL, McDermott KB (1995) Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 21:803CrossRef
22.
go back to reference Spinnler H, Tognoni G (1987) Standardizzazione e taratura italiana di test neuropsicologici. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio Neuropsicologico dell’Invecchiamento. Ital J Neurol Sci 6(Suppl 8):8–120 Spinnler H, Tognoni G (1987) Standardizzazione e taratura italiana di test neuropsicologici. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio Neuropsicologico dell’Invecchiamento. Ital J Neurol Sci 6(Suppl 8):8–120
24.
go back to reference Montano A, Flebus GB (2006) Presentazione del Beck Depression Inventory-seconda edizione (BDI-II): conferma della struttura bifattoriale in un campione di popolazione italiana. Psicoter Cogn e Comport 12:67 Montano A, Flebus GB (2006) Presentazione del Beck Depression Inventory-seconda edizione (BDI-II): conferma della struttura bifattoriale in un campione di popolazione italiana. Psicoter Cogn e Comport 12:67
41.
go back to reference Macchitella L, Tosi G, Giaquinto F, et al (2023) Genuine Memory Deficits as Assessed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in the Behavioural Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Study. Neuropsychol Rev. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11065-023-09613-3 Macchitella L, Tosi G, Giaquinto F, et al (2023) Genuine Memory Deficits as Assessed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in the Behavioural Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Study. Neuropsychol Rev. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​S11065-023-09613-3
Metadata
Title
The False Recognition Test, a new tool for the assessment of false memories, with normative data from an Italian sample
Authors
Francesco Panico
Laura Catalano
Laura Sagliano
Luigi Trojano
Publication date
17-06-2024
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Keywords
Dementia
Dementia
Published in
Neurological Sciences
Print ISSN: 1590-1874
Electronic ISSN: 1590-3478
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-024-07656-9