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09-05-2024 | COVID-19

Protein C and S activities in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors: Zahra Khoshnegah, Payam Siyadat, Mehrdad Rostami, Maryam Sheikhi, Mohammad Ghorbani, Hassan Mansouritorghabeh

Published in: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis

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Abstract

COVID-19 has been associated with alterations in coagulation. Recent reports have shown that protein C and S activities are altered in COVID-19. This may affect the complications and outcome of the disease. However, their exact role in COVID-19 remains uncertain. The aim of the current study was therefore to analyze all papers in the literature on protein C and S activities in COVID-19. We searched three medical electronic databases. Of the 2442 papers, 28 studies were selected for the present meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, means ± standard deviations with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for protein C and S activities were extracted. Pooled p values were calculated using STATA software. Protein C and S activities were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients than in healthy controls (pooled p values: 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Similarly, protein C activities were considerably lower in nonsurviving patients (pooled p value = 0.00). There was no association between proteins C or S and thrombosis risk or ICU admission in COVID-19 patients (p value > 0.05). COVID-19 patients may exhibit lower activities of the C and S proteins, which might affect disease outcome; however, additional attention should be given when considering therapeutic strategies for these patients.

Graphical Abstract

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Metadata
Title
Protein C and S activities in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Authors
Zahra Khoshnegah
Payam Siyadat
Mehrdad Rostami
Maryam Sheikhi
Mohammad Ghorbani
Hassan Mansouritorghabeh
Publication date
09-05-2024
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Print ISSN: 0929-5305
Electronic ISSN: 1573-742X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11239-024-02971-6
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