We aimed to explore the position, morphological, and morphometric properties of the hyoid bone (HB) and to investigate the effect of HB on the pharyngeal airway (PA) volume and cephalometric measurements.
A total of 305 patients with CT images were included in the study. DICOM images were transferred to the InVivoDental three-dimensional imaging software. The position of the HB was determined based on the cervical vertebra level and in volume render tab, the bone was classified into six types after all structures around the HB were removed. Also, final bone volume was recorded. In the same tab, the pharyngeal airway volume was divided and measured in three groups (nasopharynx–oropharynx–hypopharynx). The linear and angular measurements were performed on the 3D cephalometric analysis tab.
HB was most commonly located in C3 vertebra level (80.3%). While B-type was found to be the most frequent (34%), V-type was the least frequent (8%). The volume of the HB was found to be significantly higher in male (3205 mm3) than female (2606 mm3) patients. Also, it was significantly higher in the C4 vertebra group. The vertical height of the face was positively correlated with the HB volume, C4 level position, and increased oro-nasopharyngeal airway volume.
The volume of the HB is found to differ significantly between genders and can potentially serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for understanding respiratory disorders. Its morphometric features are associated with increased face height and airway volume; however, are not related with the skeletal malocclusion classes.