Skip to main content
Top

Open Access 08-06-2024 | Computed Tomography | Review

Connective tissue disease-associated lung disease in children

Authors: Andrew H. Schapiro, Cara E. Morin, Kathryn A. Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Aki A. Tanimoto

Published in: Pediatric Radiology

Login to get access

Abstract

Connective tissue diseases are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases that can affect a variety of organ systems. Lung parenchymal involvement is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in children with connective tissue disease. Connective tissue disease-associated lung disease in children often manifests as one of several radiologic-pathologic patterns of disease, with certain patterns having a propensity to occur in association with certain connective tissue diseases. In this article, key clinical, histopathologic, and computed tomography (CT) features of typical patterns of connective tissue disease-associated lung disease in children are reviewed, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation, to improve recognition of these patterns of lung disease at CT and to empower the pediatric radiologist to more fully contribute to the care of pediatric patients with these conditions.

Graphical abstract

Literature
1.
go back to reference Ahuja J, Arora D, Kanne JP et al (2016) Imaging of Pulmonary manifestations of connective tissue diseases. Radiol Clin North Am 54:1015–1031PubMedCrossRef Ahuja J, Arora D, Kanne JP et al (2016) Imaging of Pulmonary manifestations of connective tissue diseases. Radiol Clin North Am 54:1015–1031PubMedCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Gaubitz M (2006) Epidemiology of connective tissue disorders. Rheumatology (Oxford) 45(Suppl 3):iii3–4PubMed Gaubitz M (2006) Epidemiology of connective tissue disorders. Rheumatology (Oxford) 45(Suppl 3):iii3–4PubMed
4.
go back to reference Ciftci E, Yalcinkaya F, Ince E et al (2004) Pulmonary involvement in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a report of five cases. Rheumatology (Oxford) 43:587–591PubMedCrossRef Ciftci E, Yalcinkaya F, Ince E et al (2004) Pulmonary involvement in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a report of five cases. Rheumatology (Oxford) 43:587–591PubMedCrossRef
5.
go back to reference Chung JH, Cox CW, Montner SM et al (2018) CT features of the Usual interstitial pneumonia pattern: differentiating connective tissue Disease-Associated interstitial lung Disease from Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 210:307–313PubMedCrossRef Chung JH, Cox CW, Montner SM et al (2018) CT features of the Usual interstitial pneumonia pattern: differentiating connective tissue Disease-Associated interstitial lung Disease from Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 210:307–313PubMedCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Walkoff L, White DB, Chung JH et al (2018) The four corners sign: a specific imaging feature in differentiating systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung Disease from Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. J Thorac Imaging 33:197–203PubMedCrossRef Walkoff L, White DB, Chung JH et al (2018) The four corners sign: a specific imaging feature in differentiating systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung Disease from Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. J Thorac Imaging 33:197–203PubMedCrossRef
7.
go back to reference Henry TS, Little BP, Veeraraghavan S et al (2016) The spectrum of interstitial lung disease in connective tissue disease. J Thorac Imaging 31:65–77PubMedCrossRef Henry TS, Little BP, Veeraraghavan S et al (2016) The spectrum of interstitial lung disease in connective tissue disease. J Thorac Imaging 31:65–77PubMedCrossRef
8.
go back to reference Saper VE, Chen G, Deutsch GH et al (2019) Emergent high fatality lung disease in systemic juvenile arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 78:1722–1731PubMedCrossRef Saper VE, Chen G, Deutsch GH et al (2019) Emergent high fatality lung disease in systemic juvenile arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 78:1722–1731PubMedCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Valeur NS, Stevens AM, Ferguson MR et al (2015) Multimodality thoracic imaging of juvenile systemic sclerosis: emphasis on clinical correlation and high-resolution CT of pulmonary fibrosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 204:408–422PubMedCrossRef Valeur NS, Stevens AM, Ferguson MR et al (2015) Multimodality thoracic imaging of juvenile systemic sclerosis: emphasis on clinical correlation and high-resolution CT of pulmonary fibrosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 204:408–422PubMedCrossRef
10.
go back to reference Elicker BM, Kallianos KG, Henry TS (2019) Imaging of the thoracic manifestations of connective tissue disease. Clin Chest Med 40:655–666PubMedCrossRef Elicker BM, Kallianos KG, Henry TS (2019) Imaging of the thoracic manifestations of connective tissue disease. Clin Chest Med 40:655–666PubMedCrossRef
11.
go back to reference Sridhar S, Kanne JP, Henry TS et al (2022) Medication-induced Pulmonary Injury: a scenario- and pattern-based Approach to a Perplexing Problem. Radiographics 42:38–55PubMedCrossRef Sridhar S, Kanne JP, Henry TS et al (2022) Medication-induced Pulmonary Injury: a scenario- and pattern-based Approach to a Perplexing Problem. Radiographics 42:38–55PubMedCrossRef
12.
go back to reference Pouessel G, Deschildre A, Le Bourgeois M et al (2013) The lung is involved in juvenile dermatomyositis. Pediatr Pulmonol 48:1016–1025PubMedCrossRef Pouessel G, Deschildre A, Le Bourgeois M et al (2013) The lung is involved in juvenile dermatomyositis. Pediatr Pulmonol 48:1016–1025PubMedCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Schapiro AH, Wikenheiser-Brokamp KA, Wermers JD et al (2022) Pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders in children: a practical review. Pediatr Radiol 52:1224–1233PubMedCrossRef Schapiro AH, Wikenheiser-Brokamp KA, Wermers JD et al (2022) Pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders in children: a practical review. Pediatr Radiol 52:1224–1233PubMedCrossRef
14.
go back to reference van den Hoogen F, Khanna D, Fransen J et al (2013) 2013 classification criteria for systemic sclerosis: an American college of rheumatology/European league against rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis 72:1747–1755PubMedCrossRef van den Hoogen F, Khanna D, Fransen J et al (2013) 2013 classification criteria for systemic sclerosis: an American college of rheumatology/European league against rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis 72:1747–1755PubMedCrossRef
15.
go back to reference Martini G, Foeldvari I, Russo R et al (2006) Systemic sclerosis in childhood: clinical and immunologic features of 153 patients in an international database. Arthritis Rheum 54:3971–3978PubMedCrossRef Martini G, Foeldvari I, Russo R et al (2006) Systemic sclerosis in childhood: clinical and immunologic features of 153 patients in an international database. Arthritis Rheum 54:3971–3978PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference Panigada S, Ravelli A, Silvestri M et al (2009) HRCT and pulmonary function tests in monitoring of lung involvement in juvenile systemic sclerosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 44:1226–1234PubMedCrossRef Panigada S, Ravelli A, Silvestri M et al (2009) HRCT and pulmonary function tests in monitoring of lung involvement in juvenile systemic sclerosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 44:1226–1234PubMedCrossRef
17.
go back to reference Seely JM, Jones LT, Wallace C et al (1998) Systemic sclerosis: using high-resolution CT to detect lung disease in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:691–697PubMedCrossRef Seely JM, Jones LT, Wallace C et al (1998) Systemic sclerosis: using high-resolution CT to detect lung disease in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:691–697PubMedCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Perelas A, Arrossi AV, Highland KB (2019) Pulmonary manifestations of systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Clin Chest Med 40:501–518PubMedCrossRef Perelas A, Arrossi AV, Highland KB (2019) Pulmonary manifestations of systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Clin Chest Med 40:501–518PubMedCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Desai SR, Veeraraghavan S, Hansell DM et al (2004) CT features of lung disease in patients with systemic sclerosis: comparison with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Radiology 232:560–567PubMedCrossRef Desai SR, Veeraraghavan S, Hansell DM et al (2004) CT features of lung disease in patients with systemic sclerosis: comparison with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Radiology 232:560–567PubMedCrossRef
21.
go back to reference Kligerman SJ, Groshong S, Brown KK, Lynch DA (2009) Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: radiologic, clinical, and pathologic considerations. Radiographics 29:73–87PubMedCrossRef Kligerman SJ, Groshong S, Brown KK, Lynch DA (2009) Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: radiologic, clinical, and pathologic considerations. Radiographics 29:73–87PubMedCrossRef
22.
23.
go back to reference Navallas M, Inarejos Clemente EJ, Iglesias E et al (2019) Connective tissue disorders in Childhood: are they all the same? Radiographics 39:229–250PubMedCrossRef Navallas M, Inarejos Clemente EJ, Iglesias E et al (2019) Connective tissue disorders in Childhood: are they all the same? Radiographics 39:229–250PubMedCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Travis WD, Costabel U, Hansell DM et al (2013) An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 188:733–748PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Travis WD, Costabel U, Hansell DM et al (2013) An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 188:733–748PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
25.
go back to reference Katzenstein AL, Fiorelli RF (1994) Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis. Histologic features and clinical significance. Am J Surg Pathol 18:136–147PubMedCrossRef Katzenstein AL, Fiorelli RF (1994) Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis. Histologic features and clinical significance. Am J Surg Pathol 18:136–147PubMedCrossRef
26.
go back to reference Travis WD, Matsui K, Moss J, Ferrans VJ (2000) Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: prognostic significance of cellular and fibrosing patterns: survival comparison with usual interstitial pneumonia and desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Am J Surg Pathol 24:19–33PubMedCrossRef Travis WD, Matsui K, Moss J, Ferrans VJ (2000) Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: prognostic significance of cellular and fibrosing patterns: survival comparison with usual interstitial pneumonia and desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Am J Surg Pathol 24:19–33PubMedCrossRef
27.
go back to reference Raghu G, Remy-Jardin M, Richeldi L et al (2022) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (an update) and progressive pulmonary fibrosis in adults: an Official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 205:e18–e47PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Raghu G, Remy-Jardin M, Richeldi L et al (2022) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (an update) and progressive pulmonary fibrosis in adults: an Official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 205:e18–e47PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
28.
go back to reference Natalini JG, Johr C, Kreider M (2019) Pulmonary involvement in Sjogren Syndrome. Clin Chest Med 40:531–544PubMedCrossRef Natalini JG, Johr C, Kreider M (2019) Pulmonary involvement in Sjogren Syndrome. Clin Chest Med 40:531–544PubMedCrossRef
29.
go back to reference Ramos-Casals M, Font J (2005) Primary Sjogren’s syndrome: current and emergent aetiopathogenic concepts. Rheumatology (Oxford) 44:1354–1367PubMedCrossRef Ramos-Casals M, Font J (2005) Primary Sjogren’s syndrome: current and emergent aetiopathogenic concepts. Rheumatology (Oxford) 44:1354–1367PubMedCrossRef
30.
go back to reference Helmick CG, Felson DT, Lawrence RC et al (2008) Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part I. Arthritis Rheum 58:15–25PubMedCrossRef Helmick CG, Felson DT, Lawrence RC et al (2008) Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part I. Arthritis Rheum 58:15–25PubMedCrossRef
31.
go back to reference Cimaz R, Casadei A, Rose C et al (2003) Primary Sjogren syndrome in the paediatric age: a multicentre survey. Eur J Pediatr 162:661–665PubMedCrossRef Cimaz R, Casadei A, Rose C et al (2003) Primary Sjogren syndrome in the paediatric age: a multicentre survey. Eur J Pediatr 162:661–665PubMedCrossRef
32.
go back to reference Civilibal M, Canpolat N, Yurt A et al (2007) A child with primary Sjogren syndrome and a review of the literature. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 46:738–742PubMedCrossRef Civilibal M, Canpolat N, Yurt A et al (2007) A child with primary Sjogren syndrome and a review of the literature. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 46:738–742PubMedCrossRef
33.
go back to reference Hammenfors DS, Valim V, Bica B et al (2020) Juvenile Sjogren’s syndrome: clinical characteristics with focus on salivary gland Ultrasonography. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 72:78–87PubMedCrossRef Hammenfors DS, Valim V, Bica B et al (2020) Juvenile Sjogren’s syndrome: clinical characteristics with focus on salivary gland Ultrasonography. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 72:78–87PubMedCrossRef
34.
go back to reference Houghton K, Malleson P, Cabral D et al (2005) Primary Sjogren’s syndrome in children and adolescents: are proposed diagnostic criteria applicable? J Rheumatol 32:2225–2232PubMed Houghton K, Malleson P, Cabral D et al (2005) Primary Sjogren’s syndrome in children and adolescents: are proposed diagnostic criteria applicable? J Rheumatol 32:2225–2232PubMed
35.
go back to reference Yokogawa N, Lieberman SM, Sherry DD, Vivino FB (2016) Features of childhood Sjogren’s syndrome in comparison to adult Sjogren’s syndrome: considerations in establishing child-specific diagnostic criteria. Clin Exp Rheumatol 34:343–351PubMed Yokogawa N, Lieberman SM, Sherry DD, Vivino FB (2016) Features of childhood Sjogren’s syndrome in comparison to adult Sjogren’s syndrome: considerations in establishing child-specific diagnostic criteria. Clin Exp Rheumatol 34:343–351PubMed
36.
go back to reference Anaya JM, Ogawa N, Talal N (1995) Sjogren’s syndrome in childhood. J Rheumatol 22:1152–1158PubMed Anaya JM, Ogawa N, Talal N (1995) Sjogren’s syndrome in childhood. J Rheumatol 22:1152–1158PubMed
37.
go back to reference Bartholomeo A, Aujla S, Eklund M et al (2022) Pulmonary manifestations of childhood-onset primary Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) masquerading as reactive airways disease in a male patient and review of interstitial lung disease associated with SS. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 20:101PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Bartholomeo A, Aujla S, Eklund M et al (2022) Pulmonary manifestations of childhood-onset primary Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) masquerading as reactive airways disease in a male patient and review of interstitial lung disease associated with SS. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 20:101PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
38.
go back to reference Tomiita M, Saito K, Kohno Y et al (1997) The clinical features of Sjogren’s syndrome in Japanese children. Acta Paediatr Jpn 39:268–272PubMedCrossRef Tomiita M, Saito K, Kohno Y et al (1997) The clinical features of Sjogren’s syndrome in Japanese children. Acta Paediatr Jpn 39:268–272PubMedCrossRef
39.
go back to reference Desai S (2021) Webb, Muller and Naidich’s high-resolution CT of the lung. Wolters Kluwer Health, Philadelphia Desai S (2021) Webb, Muller and Naidich’s high-resolution CT of the lung. Wolters Kluwer Health, Philadelphia
40.
go back to reference Swigris JJ, Berry GJ, Raffin TA, Kuschner WG (2002) Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia: a narrative review. Chest 122:2150–2164PubMedCrossRef Swigris JJ, Berry GJ, Raffin TA, Kuschner WG (2002) Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia: a narrative review. Chest 122:2150–2164PubMedCrossRef
41.
go back to reference Kradin RL, Mark EJ (1983) Benign lymphoid disorders of the lung, with a theory regarding their development. Hum Pathol 14:857–867PubMedCrossRef Kradin RL, Mark EJ (1983) Benign lymphoid disorders of the lung, with a theory regarding their development. Hum Pathol 14:857–867PubMedCrossRef
42.
go back to reference Panchabhai TS, Farver C, Highland KB (2016) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Clin Chest Med 37:463–474PubMedCrossRef Panchabhai TS, Farver C, Highland KB (2016) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Clin Chest Med 37:463–474PubMedCrossRef
43.
go back to reference Prenzel F, Harfst J, Schwerk N et al (2020) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and follicular bronchiolitis in children: a registry-based case series. Pediatr Pulmonol 55:909–917PubMedCrossRef Prenzel F, Harfst J, Schwerk N et al (2020) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and follicular bronchiolitis in children: a registry-based case series. Pediatr Pulmonol 55:909–917PubMedCrossRef
44.
go back to reference Guinee DG Jr (2010) Update on nonneoplastic pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders and related entities. Arch Pathol Lab Med 134:691–701PubMedCrossRef Guinee DG Jr (2010) Update on nonneoplastic pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders and related entities. Arch Pathol Lab Med 134:691–701PubMedCrossRef
45.
go back to reference Nicholson AG (2001) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and other lymphoproliferative disorders in the lung. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 22:409–422PubMedCrossRef Nicholson AG (2001) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and other lymphoproliferative disorders in the lung. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 22:409–422PubMedCrossRef
46.
go back to reference Johkoh T, Muller NL, Pickford HA et al (1999) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia: thin-section CT findings in 22 patients. Radiology 212:567–572PubMedCrossRef Johkoh T, Muller NL, Pickford HA et al (1999) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia: thin-section CT findings in 22 patients. Radiology 212:567–572PubMedCrossRef
47.
go back to reference Ichikawa Y, Kinoshita M, Koga T et al (1994) Lung cyst formation in lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia: CT features. J Comput Assist Tomogr 18:745–748PubMedCrossRef Ichikawa Y, Kinoshita M, Koga T et al (1994) Lung cyst formation in lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia: CT features. J Comput Assist Tomogr 18:745–748PubMedCrossRef
48.
go back to reference Desai SR, Nicholson AG, Stewart S et al (1997) Benign pulmonary lymphocytic infiltration and amyloidosis: computed tomographic and pathologic features in three cases. J Thorac Imaging 12:215–220PubMedCrossRef Desai SR, Nicholson AG, Stewart S et al (1997) Benign pulmonary lymphocytic infiltration and amyloidosis: computed tomographic and pathologic features in three cases. J Thorac Imaging 12:215–220PubMedCrossRef
49.
go back to reference Kobayashi I, Okura Y, Yamada M et al (2011) Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody is a diagnostic and predictive marker for interstitial lung diseases associated with juvenile dermatomyositis. J Pediatr 158:675–677PubMedCrossRef Kobayashi I, Okura Y, Yamada M et al (2011) Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody is a diagnostic and predictive marker for interstitial lung diseases associated with juvenile dermatomyositis. J Pediatr 158:675–677PubMedCrossRef
51.
go back to reference Stringer E, Singh-Grewal D, Feldman BM (2008) Predicting the course of juvenile dermatomyositis: significance of early clinical and laboratory features. Arthritis Rheum 58:3585–3592PubMedCrossRef Stringer E, Singh-Grewal D, Feldman BM (2008) Predicting the course of juvenile dermatomyositis: significance of early clinical and laboratory features. Arthritis Rheum 58:3585–3592PubMedCrossRef
52.
go back to reference Bellutti Enders F, Bader-Meunier B, Baildam E et al (2017) Consensus-based recommendations for the management of juvenile dermatomyositis. Ann Rheum Dis 76:329–340PubMedCrossRef Bellutti Enders F, Bader-Meunier B, Baildam E et al (2017) Consensus-based recommendations for the management of juvenile dermatomyositis. Ann Rheum Dis 76:329–340PubMedCrossRef
53.
54.
go back to reference Cassidy JT (2011) Textbook of pediatric rheumatology. Saunders, Philadelphia Cassidy JT (2011) Textbook of pediatric rheumatology. Saunders, Philadelphia
55.
go back to reference Kobayashi N, Takezaki S, Kobayashi I et al (2015) Clinical and laboratory features of fatal rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease associated with juvenile dermatomyositis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 54:784–791PubMedCrossRef Kobayashi N, Takezaki S, Kobayashi I et al (2015) Clinical and laboratory features of fatal rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease associated with juvenile dermatomyositis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 54:784–791PubMedCrossRef
56.
go back to reference Kobayashi I, Yamada M, Takahashi Y et al (2003) Interstitial lung disease associated with juvenile dermatomyositis: clinical features and efficacy of cyclosporin A. Rheumatology (Oxford) 42:371–374PubMedCrossRef Kobayashi I, Yamada M, Takahashi Y et al (2003) Interstitial lung disease associated with juvenile dermatomyositis: clinical features and efficacy of cyclosporin A. Rheumatology (Oxford) 42:371–374PubMedCrossRef
57.
go back to reference Trapani S, Camiciottoli G, Vierucci A et al (2001) Pulmonary involvement in juvenile dermatomyositis: a two-year longitudinal study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 40:216–220PubMedCrossRef Trapani S, Camiciottoli G, Vierucci A et al (2001) Pulmonary involvement in juvenile dermatomyositis: a two-year longitudinal study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 40:216–220PubMedCrossRef
58.
go back to reference Mathiesen PR, Buchvald F, Nielsen KG et al (2014) Pulmonary function and autoantibodies in a long-term follow-up of juvenile dermatomyositis patients. Rheumatology (Oxford) 53:644–649PubMedCrossRef Mathiesen PR, Buchvald F, Nielsen KG et al (2014) Pulmonary function and autoantibodies in a long-term follow-up of juvenile dermatomyositis patients. Rheumatology (Oxford) 53:644–649PubMedCrossRef
59.
go back to reference Arakawa H, Yamada H, Kurihara Y et al (2003) Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia associated with polymyositis and dermatomyositis: serial high-resolution CT findings and functional correlation. Chest 123:1096–1103PubMedCrossRef Arakawa H, Yamada H, Kurihara Y et al (2003) Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia associated with polymyositis and dermatomyositis: serial high-resolution CT findings and functional correlation. Chest 123:1096–1103PubMedCrossRef
60.
go back to reference Matsuki Y, Yamashita H, Takahashi Y et al (2012) Diffuse alveolar damage in patients with dermatomyositis: a six-case series. Mod Rheumatol 22:243–248PubMedCrossRef Matsuki Y, Yamashita H, Takahashi Y et al (2012) Diffuse alveolar damage in patients with dermatomyositis: a six-case series. Mod Rheumatol 22:243–248PubMedCrossRef
61.
go back to reference Myers JL, Katzenstein AL (1988) Ultrastructural evidence of alveolar epithelial injury in idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia. Am J Pathol 132:102–109PubMedPubMedCentral Myers JL, Katzenstein AL (1988) Ultrastructural evidence of alveolar epithelial injury in idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia. Am J Pathol 132:102–109PubMedPubMedCentral
62.
63.
go back to reference Peyrol S, Cordier JF, Grimaud JA (1990) Intra-alveolar fibrosis of idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia. Cell-matrix patterns. Am J Pathol 137:155–170PubMedPubMedCentral Peyrol S, Cordier JF, Grimaud JA (1990) Intra-alveolar fibrosis of idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia. Cell-matrix patterns. Am J Pathol 137:155–170PubMedPubMedCentral
64.
go back to reference Nishimura K, Itoh H (1992) High-resolution computed tomographic features of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Chest 102:26S–31SPubMedCrossRef Nishimura K, Itoh H (1992) High-resolution computed tomographic features of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Chest 102:26S–31SPubMedCrossRef
65.
go back to reference Voloudaki AE, Bouros DE, Froudarakis ME et al (1996) Crescentic and ring-shaped opacities. CT features in two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Acta Radiol 37:889–892PubMedCrossRef Voloudaki AE, Bouros DE, Froudarakis ME et al (1996) Crescentic and ring-shaped opacities. CT features in two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Acta Radiol 37:889–892PubMedCrossRef
66.
go back to reference Muller NL, Staples CA, Miller RR (1990) Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia: CT features in 14 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 154:983–987PubMedCrossRef Muller NL, Staples CA, Miller RR (1990) Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia: CT features in 14 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 154:983–987PubMedCrossRef
67.
go back to reference Lee KS, Kullnig P, Hartman TE, Muller NL (1994) Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: CT findings in 43 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 162:543–546PubMedCrossRef Lee KS, Kullnig P, Hartman TE, Muller NL (1994) Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: CT findings in 43 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 162:543–546PubMedCrossRef
68.
go back to reference Lee JW, Lee KS, Lee HY et al (2010) Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: serial high-resolution CT findings in 22 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 195:916–922PubMedCrossRef Lee JW, Lee KS, Lee HY et al (2010) Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: serial high-resolution CT findings in 22 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 195:916–922PubMedCrossRef
69.
go back to reference Chung MP, Nam BD, Lee KS et al (2018) Serial chest CT in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: evolutional changes and prognostic determinants. Respirology 23:325–330PubMedCrossRef Chung MP, Nam BD, Lee KS et al (2018) Serial chest CT in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: evolutional changes and prognostic determinants. Respirology 23:325–330PubMedCrossRef
70.
go back to reference Kim SJ, Lee KS, Ryu YH et al (2003) Reversed halo sign on high-resolution CT of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: diagnostic implications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180:1251–1254PubMedCrossRef Kim SJ, Lee KS, Ryu YH et al (2003) Reversed halo sign on high-resolution CT of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: diagnostic implications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180:1251–1254PubMedCrossRef
71.
go back to reference Ujita M, Renzoni EA, Veeraraghavan S et al (2004) Organizing pneumonia: perilobular pattern at thin-section CT. Radiology 232:757–761PubMedCrossRef Ujita M, Renzoni EA, Veeraraghavan S et al (2004) Organizing pneumonia: perilobular pattern at thin-section CT. Radiology 232:757–761PubMedCrossRef
72.
go back to reference Zompatori M, Poletti V, Battista G, Diegoli M (1999) Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP), presenting as a ring-shaped opacity at HRCT (the atoll sign). A case report. Radiol Med 97:308–310PubMed Zompatori M, Poletti V, Battista G, Diegoli M (1999) Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP), presenting as a ring-shaped opacity at HRCT (the atoll sign). A case report. Radiol Med 97:308–310PubMed
73.
go back to reference Akira M, Yamamoto S, Sakatani M (1998) Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia manifesting as multiple large nodules or masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:291–295PubMedCrossRef Akira M, Yamamoto S, Sakatani M (1998) Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia manifesting as multiple large nodules or masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:291–295PubMedCrossRef
74.
go back to reference Kligerman SJ, Franks TJ, Galvin JR (2013) From the radiologic pathology archives: organization and fibrosis as a response to lung injury in diffuse alveolar damage, organizing pneumonia, and acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia. Radiographics 33:1951–1975PubMedCrossRef Kligerman SJ, Franks TJ, Galvin JR (2013) From the radiologic pathology archives: organization and fibrosis as a response to lung injury in diffuse alveolar damage, organizing pneumonia, and acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia. Radiographics 33:1951–1975PubMedCrossRef
75.
go back to reference Groot N, de Graeff N, Avcin T et al (2017) European evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: the SHARE initiative. Ann Rheum Dis 76:1788–1796PubMedCrossRef Groot N, de Graeff N, Avcin T et al (2017) European evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: the SHARE initiative. Ann Rheum Dis 76:1788–1796PubMedCrossRef
77.
go back to reference Shin JI, Lee KH, Park S et al (2022) Systemic lupus erythematosus and lung involvement: a Comprehensive Review. J Clin Med 11 Shin JI, Lee KH, Park S et al (2022) Systemic lupus erythematosus and lung involvement: a Comprehensive Review. J Clin Med 11
78.
go back to reference Amarnani R, Yeoh SA, Denneny EK, Wincup C (2020) Lupus and the lungs: the Assessment and Management of Pulmonary manifestations of systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Front Med (Lausanne) 7:610257PubMedCrossRef Amarnani R, Yeoh SA, Denneny EK, Wincup C (2020) Lupus and the lungs: the Assessment and Management of Pulmonary manifestations of systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Front Med (Lausanne) 7:610257PubMedCrossRef
79.
go back to reference Lalani TA, Kanne JP, Hatfield GA, Chen P (2004) Imaging findings in systemic lupus erythematosus. Radiographics 24:1069–1086PubMedCrossRef Lalani TA, Kanne JP, Hatfield GA, Chen P (2004) Imaging findings in systemic lupus erythematosus. Radiographics 24:1069–1086PubMedCrossRef
80.
go back to reference Kim JS, Lee KS, Koh EM et al (2000) Thoracic involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 24:9–18PubMedCrossRef Kim JS, Lee KS, Koh EM et al (2000) Thoracic involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 24:9–18PubMedCrossRef
81.
go back to reference Blay G, Rodrigues JC, Ferreira JCO et al (2018) Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a severe disease flare with serious outcome. Adv Rheumatol 58:39PubMedCrossRef Blay G, Rodrigues JC, Ferreira JCO et al (2018) Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a severe disease flare with serious outcome. Adv Rheumatol 58:39PubMedCrossRef
82.
go back to reference Fukuda Y, Ishizaki M, Masuda Y et al (1987) The role of intraalveolar fibrosis in the process of pulmonary structural remodeling in patients with diffuse alveolar damage. Am J Pathol 126:171–182PubMedPubMedCentral Fukuda Y, Ishizaki M, Masuda Y et al (1987) The role of intraalveolar fibrosis in the process of pulmonary structural remodeling in patients with diffuse alveolar damage. Am J Pathol 126:171–182PubMedPubMedCentral
83.
go back to reference Thille AW, Esteban A, Fernandez-Segoviano P et al (2013) Chronology of histological lesions in acute respiratory distress syndrome with diffuse alveolar damage: a prospective cohort study of clinical autopsies. Lancet Respir Med 1:395–401PubMedCrossRef Thille AW, Esteban A, Fernandez-Segoviano P et al (2013) Chronology of histological lesions in acute respiratory distress syndrome with diffuse alveolar damage: a prospective cohort study of clinical autopsies. Lancet Respir Med 1:395–401PubMedCrossRef
84.
go back to reference Burkhardt A (1989) Alveolitis and collapse in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 140:513–524PubMedCrossRef Burkhardt A (1989) Alveolitis and collapse in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 140:513–524PubMedCrossRef
85.
go back to reference Katzenstein AL (1985) Pathogenesis of fibrosis in interstitial pneumonia: an electron microscopic study. Hum Pathol 16:1015–1024PubMedCrossRef Katzenstein AL (1985) Pathogenesis of fibrosis in interstitial pneumonia: an electron microscopic study. Hum Pathol 16:1015–1024PubMedCrossRef
86.
go back to reference Ferguson EC, Berkowitz EA (2012) Lung CT: part 2, the interstitial pneumonias–clinical, histologic, and CT manifestations. AJR Am J Roentgenol 199:W464–476PubMedCrossRef Ferguson EC, Berkowitz EA (2012) Lung CT: part 2, the interstitial pneumonias–clinical, histologic, and CT manifestations. AJR Am J Roentgenol 199:W464–476PubMedCrossRef
87.
go back to reference Marquis KM, Hammer MM, Steinbrecher K et al (2023) CT Approach to Lung Injury. Radiographics 43:e220176PubMedCrossRef Marquis KM, Hammer MM, Steinbrecher K et al (2023) CT Approach to Lung Injury. Radiographics 43:e220176PubMedCrossRef
88.
go back to reference Rouby JJ, Puybasset L, Nieszkowska A, Lu Q (2003) Acute respiratory distress syndrome: lessons from computed tomography of the whole lung. Crit Care Med 31:S285–295PubMedCrossRef Rouby JJ, Puybasset L, Nieszkowska A, Lu Q (2003) Acute respiratory distress syndrome: lessons from computed tomography of the whole lung. Crit Care Med 31:S285–295PubMedCrossRef
89.
go back to reference Ichikado K, Suga M, Gushima Y et al (2000) Hyperoxia-induced diffuse alveolar damage in pigs: correlation between thin-section CT and histopathologic findings. Radiology 216:531–538PubMedCrossRef Ichikado K, Suga M, Gushima Y et al (2000) Hyperoxia-induced diffuse alveolar damage in pigs: correlation between thin-section CT and histopathologic findings. Radiology 216:531–538PubMedCrossRef
90.
go back to reference Desai SR, Wells AU, Rubens MB et al (1999) Acute respiratory distress syndrome: CT abnormalities at long-term follow-up. Radiology 210:29–35PubMedCrossRef Desai SR, Wells AU, Rubens MB et al (1999) Acute respiratory distress syndrome: CT abnormalities at long-term follow-up. Radiology 210:29–35PubMedCrossRef
91.
go back to reference Wilcox ME, Patsios D, Murphy G et al (2013) Radiologic outcomes at 5 years after severe ARDS. Chest 143:920–926PubMedCrossRef Wilcox ME, Patsios D, Murphy G et al (2013) Radiologic outcomes at 5 years after severe ARDS. Chest 143:920–926PubMedCrossRef
92.
go back to reference Nobauer-Huhmann IM, Eibenberger K, Schaefer-Prokop C et al (2001) Changes in lung parenchyma after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): assessment with high-resolution computed tomography. Eur Radiol 11:2436–2443PubMedCrossRef Nobauer-Huhmann IM, Eibenberger K, Schaefer-Prokop C et al (2001) Changes in lung parenchyma after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): assessment with high-resolution computed tomography. Eur Radiol 11:2436–2443PubMedCrossRef
94.
95.
go back to reference Petty RE, Southwood TR, Manners P et al (2004) International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: second revision, Edmonton, 2001. J Rheumatol 31:390–392PubMed Petty RE, Southwood TR, Manners P et al (2004) International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: second revision, Edmonton, 2001. J Rheumatol 31:390–392PubMed
96.
go back to reference Woo P (2006) Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: diagnosis, management, and outcome. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 2:28–34PubMedCrossRef Woo P (2006) Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: diagnosis, management, and outcome. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 2:28–34PubMedCrossRef
97.
go back to reference Martini A, Lovell DJ (2010) Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: state of the art and future perspectives. Ann Rheum Dis 69:1260–1263PubMedCrossRef Martini A, Lovell DJ (2010) Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: state of the art and future perspectives. Ann Rheum Dis 69:1260–1263PubMedCrossRef
98.
go back to reference Schulert GS, Yasin S, Carey B et al (2019) Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Associated Lung Disease: characterization and risk factors. Arthritis Rheumatol 71:1943–1954PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Schulert GS, Yasin S, Carey B et al (2019) Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Associated Lung Disease: characterization and risk factors. Arthritis Rheumatol 71:1943–1954PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
99.
go back to reference Vega-Fernandez P, Ting TV, Mar DA et al (2023) Lung Ultrasound in Children with systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Associated interstitial lung disease. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 75:983–988PubMedCrossRef Vega-Fernandez P, Ting TV, Mar DA et al (2023) Lung Ultrasound in Children with systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Associated interstitial lung disease. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 75:983–988PubMedCrossRef
100.
go back to reference Sharp GC, Irvin WS, Tan EM et al (1972) Mixed connective tissue disease–an apparently distinct rheumatic disease syndrome associated with a specific antibody to an extractable nuclear antigen (ENA). Am J Med 52:148–159PubMedCrossRef Sharp GC, Irvin WS, Tan EM et al (1972) Mixed connective tissue disease–an apparently distinct rheumatic disease syndrome associated with a specific antibody to an extractable nuclear antigen (ENA). Am J Med 52:148–159PubMedCrossRef
101.
102.
go back to reference Burdt MA, Hoffman RW, Deutscher SL et al (1999) Long-term outcome in mixed connective tissue disease: longitudinal clinical and serologic findings. Arthritis Rheum 42:899–909PubMedCrossRef Burdt MA, Hoffman RW, Deutscher SL et al (1999) Long-term outcome in mixed connective tissue disease: longitudinal clinical and serologic findings. Arthritis Rheum 42:899–909PubMedCrossRef
103.
go back to reference Bowyer S, Roettcher P (1996) Pediatric rheumatology clinic populations in the United States: results of a 3 year survey. Pediatric Rheumatology Database Research Group. J Rheumatol 23:1968–1974PubMed Bowyer S, Roettcher P (1996) Pediatric rheumatology clinic populations in the United States: results of a 3 year survey. Pediatric Rheumatology Database Research Group. J Rheumatol 23:1968–1974PubMed
104.
105.
go back to reference Lundberg I, Hedfors E (1991) Clinical course of patients with anti-RNP antibodies. A prospective study of 32 patients. J Rheumatol 18:1511–1519PubMed Lundberg I, Hedfors E (1991) Clinical course of patients with anti-RNP antibodies. A prospective study of 32 patients. J Rheumatol 18:1511–1519PubMed
106.
go back to reference Kozuka T, Johkoh T, Honda O et al (2001) Pulmonary involvement in mixed connective tissue disease: high-resolution CT findings in 41 patients. J Thorac Imaging 16:94–98PubMedCrossRef Kozuka T, Johkoh T, Honda O et al (2001) Pulmonary involvement in mixed connective tissue disease: high-resolution CT findings in 41 patients. J Thorac Imaging 16:94–98PubMedCrossRef
107.
go back to reference Yamanaka Y, Baba T, Hagiwara E et al (2018) Radiological images of interstitial pneumonia in mixed connective tissue disease compared with scleroderma and polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Eur J Radiol 107:26–32PubMedCrossRef Yamanaka Y, Baba T, Hagiwara E et al (2018) Radiological images of interstitial pneumonia in mixed connective tissue disease compared with scleroderma and polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Eur J Radiol 107:26–32PubMedCrossRef
108.
go back to reference Gunnarsson R, Aalokken TM, Molberg O et al (2012) Prevalence and severity of interstitial lung disease in mixed connective tissue disease: a nationwide, cross-sectional study. Ann Rheum Dis 71:1966–1972PubMedCrossRef Gunnarsson R, Aalokken TM, Molberg O et al (2012) Prevalence and severity of interstitial lung disease in mixed connective tissue disease: a nationwide, cross-sectional study. Ann Rheum Dis 71:1966–1972PubMedCrossRef
109.
go back to reference Gunnarsson R, El-Hage F, Aalokken TM et al (2016) Associations between anti-Ro52 antibodies and lung fibrosis in mixed connective tissue disease. Rheumatology (Oxford) 55:103–108PubMedCrossRef Gunnarsson R, El-Hage F, Aalokken TM et al (2016) Associations between anti-Ro52 antibodies and lung fibrosis in mixed connective tissue disease. Rheumatology (Oxford) 55:103–108PubMedCrossRef
110.
go back to reference Bodolay E, Szekanecz Z, Devenyi K et al (2005) Evaluation of interstitial lung disease in mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Rheumatology (Oxford) 44:656–661PubMedCrossRef Bodolay E, Szekanecz Z, Devenyi K et al (2005) Evaluation of interstitial lung disease in mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Rheumatology (Oxford) 44:656–661PubMedCrossRef
111.
go back to reference Tiddens HA, van der Net JJ, de Graeff-Meeder ER et al (1993) Juvenile-onset mixed connective tissue disease: longitudinal follow-up. J Pediatr 122:191–197PubMedCrossRef Tiddens HA, van der Net JJ, de Graeff-Meeder ER et al (1993) Juvenile-onset mixed connective tissue disease: longitudinal follow-up. J Pediatr 122:191–197PubMedCrossRef
112.
go back to reference Garcia-Pena P, Boixadera H, Barber I et al (2011) Thoracic findings of systemic diseases at high-resolution CT in children. Radiographics 31:465–482PubMedCrossRef Garcia-Pena P, Boixadera H, Barber I et al (2011) Thoracic findings of systemic diseases at high-resolution CT in children. Radiographics 31:465–482PubMedCrossRef
113.
go back to reference Antoniou KM, Margaritopoulos G, Economidou F, Siafakas NM (2009) Pivotal clinical dilemmas in collagen vascular diseases associated with interstitial lung involvement. Eur Respir J 33:882–896PubMedCrossRef Antoniou KM, Margaritopoulos G, Economidou F, Siafakas NM (2009) Pivotal clinical dilemmas in collagen vascular diseases associated with interstitial lung involvement. Eur Respir J 33:882–896PubMedCrossRef
114.
go back to reference Hajas A, Szodoray P, Nakken B et al (2013) Clinical course, prognosis, and causes of death in mixed connective tissue disease. J Rheumatol 40:1134–1142PubMedCrossRef Hajas A, Szodoray P, Nakken B et al (2013) Clinical course, prognosis, and causes of death in mixed connective tissue disease. J Rheumatol 40:1134–1142PubMedCrossRef
Metadata
Title
Connective tissue disease-associated lung disease in children
Authors
Andrew H. Schapiro
Cara E. Morin
Kathryn A. Wikenheiser-Brokamp
Aki A. Tanimoto
Publication date
08-06-2024