This study aimed to compare facial 3D soft tissue changes in subjects with Class III deformities who underwent bimaxillary clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) rotational orthognathic surgery.
Asian Class III subjects who completed bimaxillary surgical orthodontic treatments were enrolled and categorized into CW and CCW groups based on maxillary occlusal plane alterations. Preoperative and 9-month follow-up cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 3D stereophotogrammetry were obtained, superimposed, and quantified for skeletal movements and soft tissue changes in six facial regions. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) adjusted for potential confounding factors.
Thirty-seven subjects were included (CW group, n = 20; CCW group, n = 17). Postsurgical chin volume significantly reduced in the CW group compared to the CCW group (mean difference 6362 mm3; p = 0.037), and intergonial width significantly decreased in the CW group (mean difference 6.2 mm; p = 0.005). The postoperative alar width increased by 1.04 mm and 1.22 mm in the CW and CCW groups, respectively (p = 0.70). However, these changes were not significantly correlated to the direction of MMC pitch.
Clockwise rotation of the bimaxillary complex demonstrated a significant advantage in reducing chin volume and intergonial width compared to counterclockwise rotation, leading to a reduced frontal lower face width among Asian Class III subjects.