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26-07-2023 | Clostridioides Difficile | Review Article

Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection: Current Clinical Management and Microbiome-Based Therapies

Authors: Parul Berry, Sahil Khanna

Published in: BioDrugs | Issue 6/2023

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Abstract

Clostridioides difficile is one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated diarrhea. The high incidence and recurrence rates of C. difficile infection, as well as its associated morbidity and mortality, are great concerns. The most common complication of C. difficile infection is recurrence, with rates of 20–30% after a primary infection and 60% after three or more episodes. Medical management of recurrent C. difficile infection involves a choice of therapy that is different from the antibiotic used in the primary episode. Patients with recurrent C. difficile infection also benefit from fecal microbiota transplantation or standardized microbiome restoration therapies (approved or experimental) to restore eubiosis. In contrast to antibiotics, microbiome restoration therapies restore a normal gut flora and eliminate C. difficile colonization and infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent C. difficile infection has demonstrated higher success rates than vancomycin, fidaxomicin, or placebo. Fecal microbiota transplantation has traditionally been considered safe, with the most common adverse reactions being abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea, and rare serious adverse events. Significant heterogeneity and a lack of standardization regarding the process of preparation, and administration of fecal microbiota transplantation remain a major pitfall. Standardized microbiome-based therapies provide a promising alternative. In the ECOSPOR III trial of SER-109, an oral formulation of bacterial spores, a significant reduction in the recurrence rate (12%) was observed compared with placebo (40%). In the phase III PUNCH CD3 trial, RBX2660 also demonstrated high efficacy rates of 70.6% versus 57.5%. Both these agents are now US Food and Drug Administration approved for recurrent C. difficile infection. Other standardized microbiome-based therapies currently in the pipeline are VE303, RBX7455, and MET-2. Antibiotic neutralization strategies, vaccines, passive monoclonal antibodies, and drug repurposing are other therapeutic strategies being explored to treat C. difficile infection.
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Metadata
Title
Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection: Current Clinical Management and Microbiome-Based Therapies
Authors
Parul Berry
Sahil Khanna
Publication date
26-07-2023
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Published in
BioDrugs / Issue 6/2023
Print ISSN: 1173-8804
Electronic ISSN: 1179-190X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40259-023-00617-2

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