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Open Access 28-05-2024 | Chronic Kidney Disease | Pediatric Hypertension (C Hanevold, Section Editor)

Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk Among Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Nicholas G. Larkins, Jonathan C. Craig

Published in: Current Hypertension Reports

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Abstract

Purpose of Review

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality across the lifespan of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is a common and important contributor, but other factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia and mineral bone disease play a role. This narrative review focusses on studies published in the past five years that have investigated hypertension and cardiovascular risk among children with CKD.

Recent Findings

Cohort studies such as Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) and Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C) have continued to develop our understanding of blood pressure (BP) phenotypes, and of progressive changes in the structure and function of the heart and blood vessels occurring in children with CKD. Metabolic risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, may represent an under-recognized component of care. Trial data are less common than observational evidence, but support lifestyle interventions currently used, mainly the low sodium dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. The findings of the recently reported Hypertension Optimal Treatment in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease trial (HOT-KID) are described in relation to the use of office BP treatment targets.

Summary

Cardiovascular health is critical to the long-term outcomes of children with CKD. Recognizing and treating hypertension remains a critical component to improving outcomes, along with measures to improve concurrent cardiovascular risk factors. Some cardiovascular changes may not be reversible with transplantation and further research is needed for children at all stages of CKD.
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Metadata
Title
Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk Among Children with Chronic Kidney Disease
Authors
Nicholas G. Larkins
Jonathan C. Craig
Publication date
28-05-2024
Webinar | 27-06-2024 | 18:00 (CEST)

Keynote webinar | Spotlight on medication adherence

Medication non-adherence is a major barrier to effective healthcare delivery; half of all patients do not follow their doctor’s recommendations or treatment plan.

Our experts explain the fundamentals with a practical discussion of how to manage non-adherence in two common scenarios: hypertension and asthma control.

Prof. Kevin Dolgin
Prof. Florian Limbourg
Prof. Anoop Chauhan
Developed by: Springer Medicine