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Open Access 26-07-2023 | Chronic Kidney Disease | Original Research

Global Economic Burden Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Pragmatic Review of Medical Costs for the Inside CKD Research Programme

Authors: Vivekanand Jha, Saeed M. G. Al-Ghamdi, Guisen Li, Mai-Szu Wu, Panagiotis Stafylas, Lise Retat, Joshua Card-Gowers, Salvatore Barone, Claudia Cabrera, Juan Jose Garcia Sanchez

Published in: Advances in Therapy | Issue 10/2023

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Abstract

Introduction

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive disease of growing prevalence, posing serious concerns for global public health. While the economic burden of CKD is substantial, data on the cost of CKD is limited, despite growing pressures on healthcare systems. In this review, we summarise the available evidence in 31 countries and regions and compile a library of costing methodology and estimates of CKD management and disease-associated complications across 31 countries/regions within the Inside CKD programme.

Methods

We collected country/region-specific CKD costs via a pragmatic rapid literature review of local literature and engagement with local experts. We extracted cost data and definitions from identified sources for CKD stages G3a–5, kidney failure with replacement therapy by modality, covering haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplants, and disease-associated complications in local currency, converted to United States dollars (USD) and inflated to 2022.

Results

Annual direct costs associated with CKD management rose by an average factor of 4 in each country/region upon progression from stage G3a to G5. Mean annual costs per patient increased considerably more from early stages versus dialysis (stage G3a, mean: $3060 versus haemodialysis, mean: $57,334; peritoneal dialysis, mean: $49,490); with estimates for annual costs of transplant also substantially higher (incident: $75,326; subsequent: $16,672). The mean annual per patient costs of complications were $18,294 for myocardial infarction, $8463 for heart failure, $10,168 for stroke and $5975 for acute kidney injury. Costing definitions varied widely in granularity and/or definition across all countries/regions.

Conclusion

Globally, CKD carries a significant economic burden, which increases substantially with increasing disease severity. We identified significant gaps in published costs and inconsistent costing definitions. Cost-effective interventions that target primary prevention and disease progression are essential to reduce CKD burden. Our results can be used to guide cost collection and facilitate better comparisons across countries/regions to inform healthcare policy.
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Metadata
Title
Global Economic Burden Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Pragmatic Review of Medical Costs for the Inside CKD Research Programme
Authors
Vivekanand Jha
Saeed M. G. Al-Ghamdi
Guisen Li
Mai-Szu Wu
Panagiotis Stafylas
Lise Retat
Joshua Card-Gowers
Salvatore Barone
Claudia Cabrera
Juan Jose Garcia Sanchez
Publication date
26-07-2023
Publisher
Springer Healthcare
Published in
Advances in Therapy / Issue 10/2023
Print ISSN: 0741-238X
Electronic ISSN: 1865-8652
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-023-02608-9

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