Dental caries represents one of the most prevalent health problems in childhood. Numerous studies have assessed that vitamin D deficiency is highly related to dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children. The aim of this study is to elaborate a narrative review about proposed mechanisms by which vitamin D deficiency interacts with dental caries process in children. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may cause intrauterine enamel defects, and through childhood is accompanied by insufficient activity of antibacterial peptides, decreased saliva secretion, and a low level of calcium in saliva.
Conclusion: In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency would increase the risk of caries in the primary and/or permanent dentition. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and dental caries is evident enough for vitamin D deficiency to be considered as a risk factor for dental caries in children. Optimal levels of vitamin D throughout pregnancy and childhood may be considered an additional preventive measure for dental caries in the primary and permanent dentition.