Skip to main content
Top
Published in: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 9/2022

Open Access 21-03-2022 | Cardiomyopathy | Original Paper

Feature tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance reveals recovery of atrial function after acute myocarditis

Authors: J. N. Schneider, C. Jahnke, E. Cavus, C. Chevalier, S. Bohnen, U. K. Radunski, K. A. Riedl, E. Tahir, G. Adam, P. Kirchhof, S. Blankenberg, G. K. Lund, K. Müllerleile

Published in: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging | Issue 9/2022

Login to get access

Abstract

Follow-up after acute myocarditis is important to detect persisting myocardial dysfunction. However, recovery of atrial function has not been evaluated after acute myocarditis so far. Thirty-five patients with strictly defined acute myocarditis underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR, 1.5 T) in the acute stage at baseline (BL) and at 3 months follow-up (FU). The study population included 13 patients with biopsy-proven “cardiomyopathy-like” myocarditis (CLM) and 22 patients with “infarct-like” (ILM) clinical presentation. CMR feature tracking (FT) was performed on conventional cine SSFP sequences. Median LA-GLS increased from 33.2 (14.5; 39.2) at BL to 37.0% (25.2; 44.1, P = 0.0018) at FU in the entire study population. Median LA-GLS also increased from 36.7 (26.5; 42.3) at BL to 41.3% (34.5; 44.8, P = 0.0262) at FU in the ILM subgroup and from 11.3 (6.4; 21.1) at BL to 21.4% (14.2; 30.7, P = 0.0186) at FU in the CLM subgroup. Median RA-GLS significantly increased from BL with 30.8 (22.5; 37.0) to FU with 33.7% (26.8; 45.4, P = 0.0027) in the entire study population. Median RA-GLS also significantly increased from 32.7 (25.8; 41.0) at BL to 35.8% (27.7; 48.0, P = 0.0495) at FU in the ILM subgroup and from 22.8 (13.1; 33.9) at BL to 31.0% (26.0; 40.8, P = 0.0266) at FU in the CLM subgroup. Our findings demonstrate recovery of LA and RA function by CMR-FT strain analyses in patients after acute myocarditis independent from clinical presentation. Monitoring of atrial strain could be an important tool for an individual assessment of healing after acute myocarditis.
Literature
1.
go back to reference Caforio AL, Pankuweit S, Arbustini E, Basso C, Gimeno-Blanes J, Felix SB et al (2013) Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J 34:2636–2648PubMedCrossRef Caforio AL, Pankuweit S, Arbustini E, Basso C, Gimeno-Blanes J, Felix SB et al (2013) Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J 34:2636–2648PubMedCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Pelliccia A, Sharma S, Gati S, Back M, Borjesson M, Caselli S et al (2021) 2020 ESC guidelines on sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 42:17–96PubMedCrossRef Pelliccia A, Sharma S, Gati S, Back M, Borjesson M, Caselli S et al (2021) 2020 ESC guidelines on sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 42:17–96PubMedCrossRef
3.
go back to reference Lang RM, Badano LP, Mor-Avi V, Afilalo J, Armstrong A, Ernande L et al (2015) Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 28:1–39PubMedCrossRef Lang RM, Badano LP, Mor-Avi V, Afilalo J, Armstrong A, Ernande L et al (2015) Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 28:1–39PubMedCrossRef
4.
go back to reference Nahum J, Bensaid A, Dussault C, Macron L, Clemence D, Bouhemad B et al (2010) Impact of longitudinal myocardial deformation on the prognosis of chronic heart failure patients. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:249–256PubMedCrossRef Nahum J, Bensaid A, Dussault C, Macron L, Clemence D, Bouhemad B et al (2010) Impact of longitudinal myocardial deformation on the prognosis of chronic heart failure patients. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:249–256PubMedCrossRef
5.
go back to reference Romano S, Judd RM, Kim RJ, Kim HW, Klem I, Heitner JF et al (2018) Feature-tracking global longitudinal strain predicts death in a multicenter population of patients with ischemic and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy incremental to ejection fraction and late gadolinium enhancement. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 11:1419–1429PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Romano S, Judd RM, Kim RJ, Kim HW, Klem I, Heitner JF et al (2018) Feature-tracking global longitudinal strain predicts death in a multicenter population of patients with ischemic and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy incremental to ejection fraction and late gadolinium enhancement. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 11:1419–1429PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Fischer K, Obrist SJ, Erne SA, Stark AW, Marggraf M, Kaneko K et al (2020) Feature tracking myocardial strain incrementally improves prognostication in myocarditis beyond traditional CMR imaging features. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 13:1891–1901PubMedCrossRef Fischer K, Obrist SJ, Erne SA, Stark AW, Marggraf M, Kaneko K et al (2020) Feature tracking myocardial strain incrementally improves prognostication in myocarditis beyond traditional CMR imaging features. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 13:1891–1901PubMedCrossRef
7.
go back to reference Baessler B, Schaarschmidt F, Dick A, Michels G, Maintz D, Bunck AC (2016) Diagnostic implications of magnetic resonance feature tracking derived myocardial strain parameters in acute myocarditis. Eur J Radiol 85:218–227PubMedCrossRef Baessler B, Schaarschmidt F, Dick A, Michels G, Maintz D, Bunck AC (2016) Diagnostic implications of magnetic resonance feature tracking derived myocardial strain parameters in acute myocarditis. Eur J Radiol 85:218–227PubMedCrossRef
8.
go back to reference Dick A, Schmidt B, Michels G, Bunck AC, Maintz D, Baessler B (2017) Left and right atrial feature tracking in acute myocarditis: a feasibility study. Eur J Radiol 89:72–80PubMedCrossRef Dick A, Schmidt B, Michels G, Bunck AC, Maintz D, Baessler B (2017) Left and right atrial feature tracking in acute myocarditis: a feasibility study. Eur J Radiol 89:72–80PubMedCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Doerner J, Bunck AC, Michels G, Maintz D, Baessler B (2018) Incremental value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking derived atrial and ventricular strain parameters in a comprehensive approach for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis. Eur J Radiol 104:120–128PubMedCrossRef Doerner J, Bunck AC, Michels G, Maintz D, Baessler B (2018) Incremental value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking derived atrial and ventricular strain parameters in a comprehensive approach for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis. Eur J Radiol 104:120–128PubMedCrossRef
10.
go back to reference Luetkens JA, Petry P, Kuetting D, Dabir D, Schmeel FC, Homsi R et al (2018) Left and right ventricular strain in the course of acute myocarditis: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study. RoFo 190:722–732PubMedCrossRef Luetkens JA, Petry P, Kuetting D, Dabir D, Schmeel FC, Homsi R et al (2018) Left and right ventricular strain in the course of acute myocarditis: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study. RoFo 190:722–732PubMedCrossRef
11.
go back to reference Bohnen S, Radunski UK, Lund GK, Ojeda F, Looft Y, Senel M et al (2017) Tissue characterization by T1 and T2 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to monitor myocardial inflammation in healing myocarditis. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 18:744–751PubMedCrossRef Bohnen S, Radunski UK, Lund GK, Ojeda F, Looft Y, Senel M et al (2017) Tissue characterization by T1 and T2 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to monitor myocardial inflammation in healing myocarditis. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 18:744–751PubMedCrossRef
12.
go back to reference Fang F, Lee AP, Yu CM (2014) Left atrial function in heart failure with impaired and preserved ejection fraction. Curr Opin Cardiol 29:430–436PubMedCrossRef Fang F, Lee AP, Yu CM (2014) Left atrial function in heart failure with impaired and preserved ejection fraction. Curr Opin Cardiol 29:430–436PubMedCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Khan MS, Memon MM, Murad MH, Vaduganathan M, Greene SJ, Hall M et al (2020) Left atrial function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Heart Fail 22:472–485PubMedCrossRef Khan MS, Memon MM, Murad MH, Vaduganathan M, Greene SJ, Hall M et al (2020) Left atrial function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Heart Fail 22:472–485PubMedCrossRef
14.
go back to reference Malagoli A, Rossi L, Bursi F, Zanni A, Sticozzi C, Piepoli MF et al (2019) Left atrial function predicts cardiovascular events in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 32:248–256PubMedCrossRef Malagoli A, Rossi L, Bursi F, Zanni A, Sticozzi C, Piepoli MF et al (2019) Left atrial function predicts cardiovascular events in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 32:248–256PubMedCrossRef
15.
go back to reference Jain S, Kuriakose D, Edelstein I, Ansari B, Oldland G, Gaddam S et al (2019) Right atrial phasic function in heart failure with preserved and reduced ejection fraction. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 12:1460–1470PubMedCrossRef Jain S, Kuriakose D, Edelstein I, Ansari B, Oldland G, Gaddam S et al (2019) Right atrial phasic function in heart failure with preserved and reduced ejection fraction. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 12:1460–1470PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference Friedrich MG, Sechtem U, Schulz-Menger J, Holmvang G, Alakija P, Cooper LT et al (2009) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in myocarditis: a JACC white paper. J Am Coll Cardiol 53:1475–1487PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Friedrich MG, Sechtem U, Schulz-Menger J, Holmvang G, Alakija P, Cooper LT et al (2009) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in myocarditis: a JACC white paper. J Am Coll Cardiol 53:1475–1487PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
17.
go back to reference Subahi A, Akintoye E, Yassin AS, Abubakar H, Adegbala O, Mishra T et al (2019) Impact of atrial fibrillation on patients hospitalized for acute myocarditis: insights from a nationally-representative United States cohort. Clin Cardiol 42:26–31PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Subahi A, Akintoye E, Yassin AS, Abubakar H, Adegbala O, Mishra T et al (2019) Impact of atrial fibrillation on patients hospitalized for acute myocarditis: insights from a nationally-representative United States cohort. Clin Cardiol 42:26–31PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Radunski UK, Lund GK, Stehning C, Schnackenburg B, Bohnen S, Adam G et al (2014) CMR in patients with severe myocarditis: diagnostic value of quantitative tissue markers including extracellular volume imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 7:667–675PubMedCrossRef Radunski UK, Lund GK, Stehning C, Schnackenburg B, Bohnen S, Adam G et al (2014) CMR in patients with severe myocarditis: diagnostic value of quantitative tissue markers including extracellular volume imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 7:667–675PubMedCrossRef
19.
go back to reference Cavus E, Muellerleile K, Schellert S, Schneider J, Tahir E, Chevalier C et al (2021) CMR feature tracking strain patterns and their association with circulating cardiac biomarkers in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Clin Res Cardiol 110:1757PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Cavus E, Muellerleile K, Schellert S, Schneider J, Tahir E, Chevalier C et al (2021) CMR feature tracking strain patterns and their association with circulating cardiac biomarkers in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Clin Res Cardiol 110:1757PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Claus P, Omar AMS, Pedrizzetti G, Sengupta PP, Nagel E (2015) Tissue tracking technology for assessing cardiac mechanics: principles, normal values, and clinical applications. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 8:1444–1460PubMedCrossRef Claus P, Omar AMS, Pedrizzetti G, Sengupta PP, Nagel E (2015) Tissue tracking technology for assessing cardiac mechanics: principles, normal values, and clinical applications. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 8:1444–1460PubMedCrossRef
22.
go back to reference Kowallick JT, Morton G, Lamata P, Jogiya R, Kutty S, Hasenfuss G et al (2015) Quantification of atrial dynamics using cardiovascular magnetic resonance: inter-study reproducibility. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 17:36PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kowallick JT, Morton G, Lamata P, Jogiya R, Kutty S, Hasenfuss G et al (2015) Quantification of atrial dynamics using cardiovascular magnetic resonance: inter-study reproducibility. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 17:36PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
23.
go back to reference Nagueh SF, Smiseth OA, Appleton CP, Byrd BF 3rd, Dokainish H, Edvardsen T et al (2016) Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography: an update from the American Society of echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 29:277–314PubMedCrossRef Nagueh SF, Smiseth OA, Appleton CP, Byrd BF 3rd, Dokainish H, Edvardsen T et al (2016) Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography: an update from the American Society of echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 29:277–314PubMedCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Begieneman MP, Emmens RW, Rijvers L, Kubat B, Paulus WJ, Vonk AB et al (2016) Ventricular myocarditis coincides with atrial myocarditis in patients. Cardiovasc Pathol 25:141–148PubMedCrossRef Begieneman MP, Emmens RW, Rijvers L, Kubat B, Paulus WJ, Vonk AB et al (2016) Ventricular myocarditis coincides with atrial myocarditis in patients. Cardiovasc Pathol 25:141–148PubMedCrossRef
25.
go back to reference Siebermair J, Kholmovski EG, Marrouche N (2017) Assessment of left atrial fibrosis by late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance Imaging: methodology and clinical implications. JACC Clin Electrophysiol 3:791–802PubMedCrossRef Siebermair J, Kholmovski EG, Marrouche N (2017) Assessment of left atrial fibrosis by late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance Imaging: methodology and clinical implications. JACC Clin Electrophysiol 3:791–802PubMedCrossRef
26.
go back to reference Andre F, Robbers-Visser D, Helling-Bakki A, Foll A, Voss A, Katus HA et al (2016) Quantification of myocardial deformation in children by cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking: determination of reference values for left ventricular strain and strain rate. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 19:8PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Andre F, Robbers-Visser D, Helling-Bakki A, Foll A, Voss A, Katus HA et al (2016) Quantification of myocardial deformation in children by cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking: determination of reference values for left ventricular strain and strain rate. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 19:8PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
27.
go back to reference Pritchett AM, Mahoney DW, Jacobsen SJ, Rodeheffer RJ, Karon BL, Redfield MM (2005) Diastolic dysfunction and left atrial volume: a population-based study. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:87–92PubMedCrossRef Pritchett AM, Mahoney DW, Jacobsen SJ, Rodeheffer RJ, Karon BL, Redfield MM (2005) Diastolic dysfunction and left atrial volume: a population-based study. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:87–92PubMedCrossRef
28.
go back to reference Singh A, Addetia K, Maffessanti F, Mor-Avi V, Lang RM (2017) LA strain for categorization of LV diastolic dysfunction. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 10:735–743PubMedCrossRef Singh A, Addetia K, Maffessanti F, Mor-Avi V, Lang RM (2017) LA strain for categorization of LV diastolic dysfunction. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 10:735–743PubMedCrossRef
29.
go back to reference Frydas A, Morris DA, Belyavskiy E, Radhakrishnan AK, Kropf M, Tadic M et al (2020) Left atrial strain as sensitive marker of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in heart failure. ESC Heart Fail 7:1956–1965PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Frydas A, Morris DA, Belyavskiy E, Radhakrishnan AK, Kropf M, Tadic M et al (2020) Left atrial strain as sensitive marker of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in heart failure. ESC Heart Fail 7:1956–1965PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
30.
go back to reference Chamsi-Pasha MA, Zhan Y, Debs D, Shah DJ (2020) CMR in the evaluation of diastolic dysfunction and phenotyping of HFpEF: current role and future perspectives. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 13:283–296PubMedCrossRef Chamsi-Pasha MA, Zhan Y, Debs D, Shah DJ (2020) CMR in the evaluation of diastolic dysfunction and phenotyping of HFpEF: current role and future perspectives. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 13:283–296PubMedCrossRef
31.
go back to reference Habibi M, Chahal H, Opdahl A, Gjesdal O, Helle-Valle TM, Heckbert SR et al (2014) Association of CMR-measured LA function with heart failure development: results from the MESA study. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 7:570–579PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Habibi M, Chahal H, Opdahl A, Gjesdal O, Helle-Valle TM, Heckbert SR et al (2014) Association of CMR-measured LA function with heart failure development: results from the MESA study. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 7:570–579PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
32.
go back to reference Pathan F, Sivaraj E, Negishi K, Rafiudeen R, Pathan S, D’Elia N et al (2018) Use of atrial strain to predict atrial fibrillation after cerebral ischemia. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 11:1557–1565PubMedCrossRef Pathan F, Sivaraj E, Negishi K, Rafiudeen R, Pathan S, D’Elia N et al (2018) Use of atrial strain to predict atrial fibrillation after cerebral ischemia. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 11:1557–1565PubMedCrossRef
33.
go back to reference Park JH, Hwang IC, Park JJ, Park JB, Cho GY (2021) Left atrial strain to predict stroke in patients with acute heart failure and sinus rhythm. J Am Heart Assoc 10:e020414PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Park JH, Hwang IC, Park JJ, Park JB, Cho GY (2021) Left atrial strain to predict stroke in patients with acute heart failure and sinus rhythm. J Am Heart Assoc 10:e020414PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
34.
go back to reference Deferm S, Martens P, Verbrugge FH, Bertrand PB, Dauw J, Verhaert D et al (2020) LA mechanics in decompensated heart failure: insights from strain echocardiography with invasive hemodynamics. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 13:1107–1115PubMedCrossRef Deferm S, Martens P, Verbrugge FH, Bertrand PB, Dauw J, Verhaert D et al (2020) LA mechanics in decompensated heart failure: insights from strain echocardiography with invasive hemodynamics. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 13:1107–1115PubMedCrossRef
35.
go back to reference Gillebert TC (2020) Left atrial reservoir and booster function in HFrEF: implications for diastolic function. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 13:1116–1118PubMedCrossRef Gillebert TC (2020) Left atrial reservoir and booster function in HFrEF: implications for diastolic function. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 13:1116–1118PubMedCrossRef
36.
go back to reference Gorter TM, van Veldhuisen DJ, Bauersachs J, Borlaug BA, Celutkiene J, Coats AJS et al (2018) Right heart dysfunction and failure in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: mechanisms and management. Position statement on behalf of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail 20:16–37PubMedCrossRef Gorter TM, van Veldhuisen DJ, Bauersachs J, Borlaug BA, Celutkiene J, Coats AJS et al (2018) Right heart dysfunction and failure in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: mechanisms and management. Position statement on behalf of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail 20:16–37PubMedCrossRef
37.
go back to reference Stokke TM, Hasselberg NE, Smedsrud MK, Sarvari SI, Haugaa KH, Smiseth OA et al (2017) Geometry as a confounder when assessing ventricular systolic function: comparison between ejection fraction and strain. J Am Coll Cardiol 70:942–954PubMedCrossRef Stokke TM, Hasselberg NE, Smedsrud MK, Sarvari SI, Haugaa KH, Smiseth OA et al (2017) Geometry as a confounder when assessing ventricular systolic function: comparison between ejection fraction and strain. J Am Coll Cardiol 70:942–954PubMedCrossRef
38.
go back to reference Kalam K, Otahal P, Marwick TH (2014) Prognostic implications of global LV dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of global longitudinal strain and ejection fraction. Heart 100:1673–1680PubMedCrossRef Kalam K, Otahal P, Marwick TH (2014) Prognostic implications of global LV dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of global longitudinal strain and ejection fraction. Heart 100:1673–1680PubMedCrossRef
39.
go back to reference Mendes LA, Dec GW, Picard MH, Palacios IF, Newell J, Davidoff R (1994) Right ventricular dysfunction: an independent predictor of adverse outcome in patients with myocarditis. Am Heart J 128:301–307PubMedCrossRef Mendes LA, Dec GW, Picard MH, Palacios IF, Newell J, Davidoff R (1994) Right ventricular dysfunction: an independent predictor of adverse outcome in patients with myocarditis. Am Heart J 128:301–307PubMedCrossRef
41.
go back to reference Francone M, Chimenti C, Galea N, Scopelliti F, Verardo R, Galea R et al (2014) CMR sensitivity varies with clinical presentation and extent of cell necrosis in biopsy-proven acute myocarditis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 7:254–263PubMedCrossRef Francone M, Chimenti C, Galea N, Scopelliti F, Verardo R, Galea R et al (2014) CMR sensitivity varies with clinical presentation and extent of cell necrosis in biopsy-proven acute myocarditis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 7:254–263PubMedCrossRef
42.
go back to reference Chopra H, Arangalage D, Bouleti C, Zarka S, Fayard F, Chillon S et al (2016) Prognostic value of the infarct- and non-infarct like patterns and cardiovascular magnetic resonance parameters on long-term outcome of patients after acute myocarditis. Int J Cardiol 212:63–69PubMedCrossRef Chopra H, Arangalage D, Bouleti C, Zarka S, Fayard F, Chillon S et al (2016) Prognostic value of the infarct- and non-infarct like patterns and cardiovascular magnetic resonance parameters on long-term outcome of patients after acute myocarditis. Int J Cardiol 212:63–69PubMedCrossRef
43.
go back to reference Alfuhied A, Marrow BA, Elfawal S, Gulsin GS, Graham-Brown MP, Steadman CD et al (2021) Reproducibility of left atrial function using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol 31:2788–2797PubMedCrossRef Alfuhied A, Marrow BA, Elfawal S, Gulsin GS, Graham-Brown MP, Steadman CD et al (2021) Reproducibility of left atrial function using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol 31:2788–2797PubMedCrossRef
Metadata
Title
Feature tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance reveals recovery of atrial function after acute myocarditis
Authors
J. N. Schneider
C. Jahnke
E. Cavus
C. Chevalier
S. Bohnen
U. K. Radunski
K. A. Riedl
E. Tahir
G. Adam
P. Kirchhof
S. Blankenberg
G. K. Lund
K. Müllerleile
Publication date
21-03-2022
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging / Issue 9/2022
Print ISSN: 1569-5794
Electronic ISSN: 1875-8312
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10554-022-02576-1

Other articles of this Issue 9/2022

The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 9/2022 Go to the issue