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Published in: Heart Failure Reviews 1/2024

Open Access 22-09-2023 | Cardiac Amyloidosis

Valvular heart disease in patients with cardiac amyloidosis

Authors: Alberto Aimo, Lara Camerini, Iacopo Fabiani, Paolo Morfino, Giorgia Panichella, Andrea Barison, Angela Pucci, Vincenzo Castiglione, Giuseppe Vergaro, Gianfranco Sinagra, Michele Emdin

Published in: Heart Failure Reviews | Issue 1/2024

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Abstract

Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is an underdiagnosed condition caused by the deposition of misfolded proteins, namely immunoglobulin light chains and transthyretin, in the extracellular spaces of the heart. Any cardiovascular structure can be affected by amyloid infiltration, including the valves. Amyloid accumulation within the cardiac valves may lead to their structural and functional impairment, with a profound impact on patients’ prognosis and quality of life. The most common forms of valvular disease in CA are aortic stenosis (AS), mitral regurgitation (MR), and tricuspid regurgitation (TR). CA and AS share similar risk factors, disease mechanisms, and remodeling patterns, which make their diagnosis particularly challenging. Patients with both CA and AS experience worse outcomes than CA or AS alone, and transcatheter aortic valve replacement may represent a useful therapeutic strategy in this population. Data on MR and TR are quite limited and mainly coming from case reports or small series. This review paper will summarize our current understanding on the epidemiology, disease mechanisms, echocardiographic features, clinical implications, and therapeutic options of AS, MR, and TR in patients with CA.
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Metadata
Title
Valvular heart disease in patients with cardiac amyloidosis
Authors
Alberto Aimo
Lara Camerini
Iacopo Fabiani
Paolo Morfino
Giorgia Panichella
Andrea Barison
Angela Pucci
Vincenzo Castiglione
Giuseppe Vergaro
Gianfranco Sinagra
Michele Emdin
Publication date
22-09-2023
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Heart Failure Reviews / Issue 1/2024
Print ISSN: 1382-4147
Electronic ISSN: 1573-7322
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10741-023-10350-1

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