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Open Access 26-07-2023 | Brigatinib | Review Article

Clinical Pharmacology of Brigatinib: A Next-Generation Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibitor

Authors: Neeraj Gupta, Michael J. Hanley, Robert J. Griffin, Pingkuan Zhang, Karthik Venkatakrishnan, Vikram Sinha

Published in: Clinical Pharmacokinetics | Issue 8/2023

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Abstract

Brigatinib, a next-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor designed to overcome mechanisms of resistance associated with crizotinib, is approved for the treatment of ALK-positive advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. After oral administration of single doses of brigatinib 30–240 mg, the median time to reach maximum plasma concentration ranged from 1 to 4 h. In patients with advanced malignancies, brigatinib showed dose linearity over the dose range of 60–240 mg once daily. A high-fat meal had no clinically meaningful effect on systemic exposures of brigatinib (area under the plasma concentration–time curve); thus, brigatinib can be administered with or without food. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis, a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model with transit absorption compartments was found to adequately describe brigatinib pharmacokinetics. In addition, the population pharmacokinetic analyses showed that no dose adjustment is required based on body weight, age, race, sex, total bilirubin (< 1.5× upper limit of normal), and mild-to-moderate renal impairment. Data from dedicated phase I trials have indicated that no dose adjustment is required for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, while a dose reduction of approximately 40% (e.g., from 180 to 120 mg) is recommended for patients with severe hepatic impairment, and a reduction of approximately 50% (e.g., from 180 to 90 mg) is recommended when administering brigatinib to patients with severe renal impairment. Brigatinib is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, and results of clinical drug–drug interaction studies and physiologically based pharmacokinetic analyses have demonstrated that coadministration of strong or moderate CYP3A inhibitors or inducers with brigatinib should be avoided. If coadministration with a strong or moderate CYP3A inhibitor cannot be avoided, the dose of brigatinib should be reduced by approximately 50% (strong CYP3A inhibitor) or approximately 40% (moderate CYP3A inhibitor), respectively. Brigatinib is a weak inducer of CYP3A in vivo; data from a phase I drug–drug interaction study showed that coadministration of brigatinib 180 mg once daily reduced the oral midazolam area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to infinity by approximately 26%. Brigatinib did not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP2D6 at clinically relevant concentrations in vitro. Exposure–response analyses based on data from the ALTA (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of AP26113) and ALTA-1L pivotal trials of brigatinib confirm the favorable benefit versus risk profile of the approved titration dosing regimen of 180 mg once daily (after a 7-day lead-in at 90 mg once daily).
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Metadata
Title
Clinical Pharmacology of Brigatinib: A Next-Generation Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibitor
Authors
Neeraj Gupta
Michael J. Hanley
Robert J. Griffin
Pingkuan Zhang
Karthik Venkatakrishnan
Vikram Sinha
Publication date
26-07-2023
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Published in
Clinical Pharmacokinetics / Issue 8/2023
Print ISSN: 0312-5963
Electronic ISSN: 1179-1926
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40262-023-01284-w

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